Category

Vol. 71

Designing a Technique for Program Expansion of Secondary Agricultural Education

Kendall M. Wright, Rolling Meadows High School

Stacy K. Vincent, University of Kentucky, stacy.vincent@uky.edu

Andrew Hauser, University of Kentucky

Lucas D. Maxwell, Illinois State University

PDF Available

Abstract

Introducing, building support for, and implementing an innovation requires many components of diffusion to be in place. The purpose of this qualitative case study was to investigate the most effective methods for developing new agricultural education programs. Using Roger’s (2003) Diffusion of Innovation model, four themes emerged from information collected in this study: a) identifying stakeholder needs, b) communication, c) education, and d) securing funding. Recommendations include creating informational packets for community members and administrators, hosting webinars to determine best practices, develop relationships with potential stakeholders, and research on additional information desired by secondary stakeholders and the circumstances under which diffusion in agricultural education fails. 

Introduction

When secondary students graduate high school, their next successful transition is career, military, or post-secondary education. For many secondary students, productive dispositions and behaviors, coupled with non-cognitive skills, are most predictive of future earnings (Castellano, et al., 2017). Therefore, emphasis has been placed on college and career readiness through career and technical education programs. A number of educational organizations, including the National Association of State Directors of Career and Technical Education (NASDCTE), the Association for Career and Technical Education (ACTE), and the Partnership for 21st Century Skills, agree that all students in the United States should be college and career ready (Erdogan & Stuessy, 2016). However, the U.S. Department of Education (2010) reported that approximately 40% of all college freshmen are enrolled in remedial courses. To address this, schools have placed a greater emphasis on providing education which better prepares students for the transition from high school to higher education, the workplace, and/or the military. To ensure all students, regardless of geographic location, were indeed prepared to be college and career ready after completing their education in a public school, Common Core State Standards were developed in 2009 (Center for American Progress, 2014). In addition, common assessments were designed to measure the college readiness of secondary students (McIntosh, 2010). Although measuring college readiness is advancement in education, simply measuring readiness will not develop curriculum which allows students to pass. Instead, it is vital to also develop programs designed to produce career readiness in addition to college readiness, and to do so in a program that is available to all secondary students.

Along with conventional academic subjects, schools are turning to career and technical education courses to facilitate the development of college and career readiness. Not only does career and technical education provide knowledge and skill sets for students, but it also introduces potential career fields, as evidenced by a study in New York that revealed over half of middle school participants identified areas of interest that were representative of the agriculture, food, fiber, and natural resources industry (Conroy, 2000).

Secondary agriculture courses provide opportunities for a variety of learners to excel and succeed in an educational setting. This can be seen in a study completed by Roberts, Hall, and Briers (2009) in which new agricultural programs in Texas schools encouraged Latino students to become more active in their education by joining and participating in an intracurricular program. Furthermore, parents of the students and alumni from the area became more active in the students’ education. Access to a teacher who provides intracurricular opportunities, such as an agricultural educator, help at-risk students improve their GPAs and narrow the achievement gap (Herrick, 2010). 

Career and Technical Education (CTE) not only helps engage minorities and at-risk students, but it also helps to increase the high school transition rate. According to Wells, Gifford, Bai, and Corra (2015), only 75% of public high school students earn a diploma within four years of entering the ninth grade. Fortunately, research infers students who enroll in career and technical education demonstrate higher levels of engagement, leading to a reduction in the probability of the students dropping out of school and improved levels of academic performance (Evan,et al., 2013). In the 2013 study, the researchers identified the geographic location of all career academies in public schools in Florida in order to determine the type of student most likely to enroll in the career and technical education classes, as well as school information such as dropout and student engagement rates, and then compared those numbers to geographic areas which did not offer career academies. They found that enrollment in career and technical education gives students an advantage in academic and career success. Furthermore, in a study by Neild, Boccanfuso, and Byrnes (2015) determined that increased engagement in and out of the CTE classroom was correlated to a reduction in disciplinary referrals.

All students can benefit from completing a course in career and technical education. In a study completed by Hagen (2010), every student in one high school completed at least one career and technical course per year. As a result of being enrolled in the course, the study revealed student engagement, achievement, student transitions, attendance rates, dropout frequency, graduation potential all improved. In addition, students developed a higher level of self-confidence and competence. Once students experience the development of their self-confidence, they experience a higher level of motivation (Eggen & Kauchak, 2010). Those who completed agricultural courses demonstrated a higher need for achievement than those students who did not complete an agricultural course. Furthermore, participants who completed agricultural courses and joined the local FFA chapter demonstrated an even higher need for achievement (Herren & Turner, 1997).

With the benefits from agricultural education courses that ensure the development of college and career readiness, an expectation for program expansion should be a priority; however, 15 states have seen the number of agricultural programs decrease since the 2011-2016 academic year. The remaining states had an average increase of 12.6 programs per state, with 67% of that growth coming from ten states (National FFA Organization, 2017). What are the high growth states doing to increase the number of programs, and to provide secondary students with the opportunity to succeed?  Why aren’t states employing methods to produce more career and technical, and specifically agricultural, programs? This study focuses on obtaining answers to those questions so that all secondary students can experience the benefits of agricultural education.

Conceptual/Theoretical Framework

The guiding theory of this study is Rogers’ Diffusion of Innovations (Rogers, 2003). An innovation is defined as a new idea, product, or method as perceived by an individual or group of people (Rogers, 1983). According to Rogers (2003), an innovation is adopted after a need is determined. The Diffusion of Innovations Theory describes the necessary means for an innovation to be adopted by a group of people. Rogers (2003) described diffusion as a process where innovation is communicated through various methods over time among the members of a social system.           

Diffusion can only occur when certain elements are present. Specifically, there are four essential elements for diffusion to occur. The source, or the entity presenting the innovation, provides two of those elements: the innovation itself and the communication of the innovation. The communication presented by the source must be through distinct channels, which connect the source to the social system in which the innovation is being presented. These channels can include mass media (television, social media, etc.) and/or interpersonal interactions (face to face meetings). According to Rogers (2003), the most effective channel for innovation is an interpersonal channel in which someone of similar status (age, education, etc.) completes a subjective evaluation of the innovation after adopting it themselves. People of similar status are referred to as “near peers”. The third element, time, occurs throughout the process as the fourth element, a social system, or adaptor, considers the innovation before it decides to diffuse the innovation (Rogers, 2003). Figure 1 provides a visual interpretation of the Diffusion of Innovation.

Figure 1

The four elements (innovation, communication through certain channels, time, and social systems) play roles in different stages of diffusion (Rogers, 1983). The knowledge stage is completed when the source communicates to the social system about the existence of the innovation and provides a basic understanding of said innovation. An example of how these stages can be seen in an educational setting can be found in a study by Hagen (1999) in which Valley City State University adopted a learning environment in which an innovation curriculum computer program was utilized. In this environment, all faculty and students were given laptops with constant access to the internet. The music department of the university entered the knowledge stage when they learned about what the technology could offer their department. As faculty learned about the possibilities, they entered the persuasion stage during in which they evaluated their initial impressions of the innovation. In this case, positive impressions were developed. The decision stage was completed when faculty began to create curriculum for the music department. The curriculum was implemented, and students focused on five innovative areas via the new environment: communication and aesthetic responsiveness, problem solving, effective citizenship and global perspective, collaboration and wellness, and technology (Hagen, 1999). 

Barriers can prevent the adoption of an innovation, and different barriers arise in different stages. Nelson and Thompson (2005) studied the diffusion of new technology into distance learning programs. When asked what the biggest barriers were to the adoption of the new technology, about 40% of teachers agreed the lack of adequate compensation for time and effort of the faculty was a major barrier. About 35% of respondents agreed the lack of faculty rewards/incentives was a major barrier and one-third of teachers agreed program development costs were also a major barrier to innovation.

Purpose and Objectives

The purpose of this qualitative multiple case study was to determine the most effective methods for program expansion of new agriculture education programs. The research questions were:

  1. What methods of diffusion are utilized in the conception and implementation of new agricultural education programs, as described by leaders in state associations?
  2. What barriers must be addressed to establish new programs?

Methods and Procedures

This study is a qualitative case study in nature, as designed by Denzin and Lincoln (2008). Case studies investigate a phenomenon, population, or general condition, which is common between different cases (Creswell, 2009). Case studies facilitate the conveyance of a participant’s experience to the researcher.  Case studies are chosen because it is believed that understanding them will lead to a better understanding about a larger collection of cases (Yin, 2008). In this study, the researchers investigated a series of phenomena, common in multiple states. The researchers sought to obtain detailed information about the methods and communication channels used when launching new agricultural education programs throughout the United States.

Participant Selection

Ten states served as the sampling frame for this study due to their growth of secondary agriculture programs. Each participant selected was chosen or nominated because of his or her affiliation with the state’s growth. Achieving the best understanding of phenomena depends on choosing the best cases to study (Denzin & Lincoln, 2008). In this research study, the participants were selected based upon a series of standards set by the researchers. With the help of the National FFA Organization, ten participants met a predetermined series of qualifications. Qualifications for participant selection were as follows: represent a state which obtained a 10%+ chapter growth over a seven-year period at the time of growth and was employed by the state FFA association or by the state’s Department of Education. The selected states had a growth range from 21 to 43 programs.

Researchers selected participants because 1) their state was one of the top 10 states to experience  a growth of 10%+ in the last seven years in secondary agriculture programs; and 2) they were the considered instrumental in the state programmatic expansion by their peers. Three states considered a team of individuals were responsible for the state’s growth. The researchers selected to interview the group of individuals within the selected states in a focus group interview; thus, each state’s selected participant(s) partake in an interview.

Procedures

The researchers focused on obtaining information about the growth of agricultural education programs over the past two decades. The National FFA Organization was contacted and information for the past seven years was provided. The National Association for Agricultural Education did not have an accurate count of agricultural education programs; therefore, the frame was limited to growth over the past seven years. The number of FFA programs were compared for all state associations from the 2010-2011 and 2017-2018 academic years. Because there must be an agricultural education program in place in a school before an FFA chapter could be started, the researchers decided the number of FFA chapters in a state was an accurate method for determining the highest growth.

Semi-structured interviews were completed, with each participant being interviewed for approximately one hour. The open-ended questions used in the interview were structured and centered on the individual’s views and experiences planning and implementing new agricultural programs, as it aligned with Rogers’ (1983) model. Following Yin’s (2018) framework of questioning, the researchers gradually modified their questions to transition from Level 1 questioning to Level 4 questioning. Pre-established prompts were used, but the order in which the questions were asked depended upon the participant’s responses. Furthermore, clarifying and elaborating probes were utilized as needed in order to provide further explanations and seek more detail in participant responses. The interviews took place over the phone and were audio-recorded.  Throughout the interview, the moderating researcher took field notes of reactions from the participant and researcher. After each interview was completed, the researcher expanded on the field notes in a reflective journal. Each interview was transcribed for analysis. 

Data Analysis

This data from this study consisted of field notes, taped interviews, transcribed interviews, and journals of personal reflections over the interview. Once all data were collected, researchers read and reread the data to become more familiar with them. Then, the researchers independently and systematically coded the data by identifying phrases and topics which consistently were mentioned in the data. Next, researchers used axial coding to create themes from the codes through the iterative method of recursive analysis. By utilizing recursive analysis, researchers constantly compared each piece of data to the prior pieces of data in order to ensure the themes were representative of the data (Yin, 2008). The researchers coded the thematic responses following Rogers’ Diffusion of Innovations to develop assertions. To add multiple perceptions to the analysis of the data for the enhancement of validity and credibility to the results, triangulation was utilized throughout the procedures. 

Trustworthiness

After all interviews were conducted, audio recorded, transcribed verbatim, and field notes written and expanded upon in a journal, the researchers independently coded data and then compared results. Peer debriefing was utilized from an outside source throughout data collection and the coding process as an impartial colleague was asked to review methodology. Furthermore, the researchers independently coded the data and then compared results. This created inter-rater reliability, which enhances thematic credibility (Denzin & Lincoln, 2008; Saldena, 2009). To increase the trustworthiness of this study, member checking was utilized. Each participant was given a copy of the findings and asked to confirm the results, creating data confirmability (Denzin & Lincoln, 2008). Follow-up phone calls were conducted to each participant to verify the content of their interview. Finally, the findings and conclusions were sent to the participants for validation. Overall, the researchers established credibility of the data using reference materials, peer debriefing, and member checking. 

Triangulation and Bracketing

Triangulation is the simultaneous display of multiple realities (Denzin & Lincoln, 2008). Data source triangulation, which is the use of multiple sources of data, were utilized in this study. There were three major types of data: interviews, field notes, and a reflective journal kept by the researchers. Investigator triangulation was also used. Because the researchers have not experienced the same events as the participants, there are multiple realities, which could lead to bias from the researchers. In order to prevent bias in this study, the background of the researchers should be addressed. The two researchers are involved in agricultural education. One researcher is involved in teacher education and taught at the secondary level for seven years prior to beginning his career at the collegiate level. The other is a current agriculture teacher who has four years of experience and is currently working on a PhD in Curriculum and Instruction. Investigator triangulation was utilized in all interviews and interactions with participants to minimize the influence of biases. This was achieved through independent coding and the maintenance of a reflective journal to describe the interactions between the researcher and the participants and to note any biases. 

Findings

For all findings, participants have been given alias names. Research question one sought to determine what methods of diffusion are utilized in the conception and implementation of new agricultural education programs. For this objective, two themes emerged.

Theme 1: Identify potential stakeholders and their needs

Throughout the interviews, participants emphasized the importance of identifying stakeholder needs. Several different stakeholders were identified, and three subgroups emerged.  The first group is community members ranging from parents, students, alumni, to legislators. The second group is school officials, ranging from administrators, school board members, superintendents, and the Department of Education. The third group included important people in the agriculture industry, such as farmers, Farm Bureau, the Department of Agriculture, sponsors, and other agribusinesses. These different groups of stakeholders have different needs for an agricultural education program. For example, a farmer would want an agricultural education program that would focus on production agriculture. However, an urban community would want an agricultural program to focus on urban agriculture and sustainability. A school administrator would want a program that would appeal to students, parents, and testing scores. Participants in the study emphasized the importance of first building a relationship with and then helping stakeholders to identify their needs and then providing them with the necessary tools and resources to advocate and build support for an agricultural education program in their community. Table 1 includes supporting statements from participants.

Theme 2: Communication is a method of entry

An important part of building relationships with stakeholders is communication. In each interview with participants, communication was a factor in creating and implementing new agricultural education programs. Two sub-themes emerged under this umbrella: methods of communication and resources in communication. Methods of communication varied, but a theme emerged with the most popular ones. Participants overwhelmingly responded that face-to-face meetings were the most effective methods of communication. However, participants recognized the need for other methods of communication, such as emails and telephone calls. For communication with students, the participants reported social media, including Facebook and Twitter, were the most effective method. Participants also listed several documents and online resources they utilize in order to implement new programs. These resources include student surveys, educational literature about agriculture and agricultural education, course standards, websites with information about agriculture courses and opportunities in FFA, and letters. State officers are also used as resources. Additional resources mentioned include grants for new programs, time placed into working with new programs, conference calls and webinars for teachers in new programs, leadership training for officers of new programs, state staff designated to help a region of teachers, and an employee who visits new programs and provides assistance as requested.   Table 2 includes supporting statements for this theme. 

Research question two sought to identify what barriers had to be overcome in order to implement new agricultural education programs.  For this objective, two themes emerged.

Theme 1: Overcoming educational barriers

When asked about barriers to creating and implementing new agricultural education programs, participants responded one barrier was the education of communities. Two sub-themes also emerged.  The first sub-theme is the education of the community (including all stakeholders) about the importance of agriculture. This was especially noted in urban and suburban areas as many people in those areas are unaware of the importance of agriculture in their community. However, in order to begin new programs, the community must see value in agriculture in order to develop a need for an agricultural education program. Participants spoke about how their first task in beginning new programs was to establish validity and importance for agriculture. The second sub-theme is the education of school officials, including administrators, school board members, and superintendents, about the difference between agricultural education and FFA.  Several participants spoke about schools that wanted to start an FFA chapter, but were unaware they had to have an agricultural education program first. Participants spoke of the importance in making school officials understand the importance of agricultural education, and not just the FFA component. Table 3 gives quotes from participants about community education.

Theme 2: Addressing financial support issues

 Overwhelmingly, the biggest barrier participants reported having to overcome is the lack of funding, or trying to find funding for new agricultural education programs to start. In most states, agriculture teachers are paid for extended days or they are paid on ten to twelve month contracts because they work with students throughout the year, regardless of whether or not school is in session. Because of this, many states have passed legislation that allows agriculture teachers to be paid for this time. In addition to paying a higher salary to a teacher, agricultural programs require additional facilities. For example, some schools have Agriscience labs or shops. Other schools have farms for their students. No matter what facilities are chosen for a program, it is an investment for schools, and many schools have struggled to find funding for new programs. The economic downturn, beginning in 2008, has also made it hard for schools to find funding for new programs. Table 4 provides participant responses on the funding barriers.

Conclusions, Implications, & Recommendations

The researchers recognize the limitations to this study and acknowledge that the findings were based upon the stories of a few individuals who were instrumental to the significant growth of program expansion in their state. However, this study did not include members of the community where the programs began, members of the organizations that further assisted with the growth, nor governmental or school officials that assisted with program expansion. Furthermore, the study is viewed from the lens of the authors who took a pragmatic worldview; hence the use of Roger’s model as a guide. Nevertheless, the findings from this study were implemented which have resulted in program development and expansion of programs within the Commonwealth of Kentucky. Of the programs developed, all have maintained partnerships with the community agency and are still present in secondary schools.

Although no community is the same and agricultural programs were not be created and implemented homogenously, there are similarities in the diffusion process. From this study, it was concluded that one of the first steps in creating new programs is to identify the needs of all stakeholders, including the community members, school officials, and industry representatives. Another important part of the process is to use the most effective communication channels possible. Although all types of communication are used (phone, email, letter, etc.), the most effective method of communication is face-to-face meetings. Resources must be used efficiently as well, in order to increase the understanding of agricultural education for the school officials and community. Resources that are utilized include websites, documents, student surveys, etc. 

The need for stakeholders serves as Channels to Rogers’ (1983) Diffusion of Innovation Theory. These stakeholders are the voice box for promoting the start of the agricultural education program from within a community. Various organizations serve as fundamental platforms and provide opportunities for community members to encourage the promotion of a secondary program within a school. To begin the process of innovation, agricultural education state staff members who are looking for the correct channel should consider meeting with various advocate groups that can assist in the process. Examples of organizations to be contacted, but not limited to, are the local Farm Bureau, the National Association of Agricultural Educators, and the local Chamber of Commerce. Each serve as interpersonal channel that could open opportunities for an agricultural education program to exist. Based upon Rogers’ model, the interpersonal channel the participants made, had a great impact on the adoption of new program expansion.

State staff members are recommended to build relationships with community leaders, administrators, and leaders in the agricultural industry prior to program proposals. Once established, the relationships serve as additional adopters for promoting and advocating the implementation of new agricultural education program. In addition, states with an interest in program expansion should seek to increase support at the state level. In this study, participants expanded upon utilizing trained support, such as state officers or teachers in the state, to further help in explaining the benefits and developing supportive networks. From the findings, it is recommended that states with the desire of program expansion seek opportunities to gain help by providing professional development in the area of advocacy. Such professional development could be provided to teachers within the state, state officers, alumni, and members of Foundation boards.  Building support by developing relationships with adopters is vital in getting a community to adopt an innovation (Rogers, 1983).

Communication in this process occurs through various ways, including phone calls, email, letters, etc., but the participants overwhelmingly agreed that face-to-face meetings are the most effective way to implement new programs. However, the main key is that an initial contact be implemented. For example, in a study utilizing Diffusion of Innovation Theory, small businesses who showed the most growth made various efforts to contact potential clients (Nooteboom, 1994). Resources that are crucial to share include student surveys, information about agriculture and agricultural education, agricultural education and FFA websites, and examples of other successful agricultural education programs in an area like the school which is considering a program. Currently, the National FFA Organization provides opportunities for administrators of non-agricultural education programs to attend the National FFA Convention to understand the value of the profession. Each state is encouraged to consider opening the door of their State FFA Convention to administrators of schools. Through these methods, communication serves as a source to the Diffusion of Innovation Theory (Rogers, 1983).

If support for agricultural education could be raised in school systems that do not currently have programs, they would be much more likely to implement one. Therefore, it is recommended that advocates for agricultural education programs should target school administrators to encourage implementation. To best implement the recommendation, face-to-face meetings are suggested, based upon the findings.  In addition, different resources, such as community, financial, industrial, and collegial, are beneficial if established prior to meeting. The establishment of such resources solves for barriers that may limit the social system (Rogers, 1983).

To fulfill Rogers’ Diffusion of Innovations Theory more efficiently in the context of agricultural education program development, it is recommended that stakeholders develop educational materials for individuals seeking to propose new agricultural education programs. Similarly, Roberts, et al. (2009) determined that new curriculum was needed for program expansion in Hispanic serving program where Roger’s model was implemented. These educational materials could consist of, but are not limited to, creative program support information, beneficial results from agricultural education, and correspondence from administration of successfully started programs.

It was concluded that the development of a new program is costly and such cost may sometimes be detrimental to its development. Therefore, supporters of agricultural education, such as National Association for Agricultural Education (NAAE) and its state affiliates, should lobby to state legislatures in the development of funding resources for establishing new programs. Such funding sources, such as the STAR program, would assist in addressing barriers and further securing a commitment between administration and agricultural education stakeholders.

To help understand the emerging themes, the researchers developed the Agricultural Education Program Development Concept Model (Figure 2). It was concluded from the results in this study that the model best represented what the participants conceptualized for their success in program expansion. Each of the four emerging themes are all linked together in the process of program expansion. Although time is necessary in the development of a new program, stakeholders must be involved, funding sources need to be addressed, a clear and open flow of communication has to exist, and the school or profession must identify and extinguish educational barriers.

Figure 2
Agricultural Education Program Development Concept Model

It is important to note that this model is merely a visual representation of how the participants in this study conceptualize program expansion. It is recommended that the model serve as a guide toward the development of questionnaires in exploring and validating the findings in this study.

The National FFA Organization, in partnership with NAAE, are encouraged to host a series of webinars in which state leaders, such as the participants in this study, collaborate and share their ideas for new program expansion. The purpose of the webinar would be to create a list of best practices for distribute to all associations, which could then be utilized in the creation and implementation of agricultural education programs across the nation.

To provide opportunities for all students in all schools to become college and career ready, programs which provide that type of preparation must be available, including agricultural education. By following Rogers’ (1983) Diffusion of Innovation Theory and ensuring all necessary stakeholders are involved, clear and effective communication is presented, and options to overcome barriers are developed, it is possible to help schools adopt this innovation and improve the education provided to their students.

References

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Georgia Extension Agents’ Perceptions of Rural Stress

Jessica Holt, University of Georgia, jaholt@uga.edu

Madison Crosby, University of Georgia, mec14669@uga.edu

Kevan Lamm, University of Georgia, KL@uga.edu

Abigail Borron, University of Georgia, aborron@uga.edu

Alexa Lamm, University of Georgia, alamm@uga.edu

PDF Available

Abstract

Rural populations, including farmers, are often disconnected from more populated areas. This disconnect includes access to healthcare and resources to address stress and mental wellbeing. Stress has been shown to lead to increased suicide rates and substance abuse. Because Extension agents are often a trusted source of information within these rural communities, identifying rural communities’ levels of stress is an essential step in creating programmatic efforts to address mental health disparities with these individuals. Utilizing a 10-item survey, Georgia agents’ perceptions of stress/mental health in their communities were measured. The survey results of 281 agents (90% response rate) were analyzed for means and frequencies to better understand what specific factors associated with stress/mental health may be the most pressing for rural communities. The findings indicate the level of stress varies by location within the state. This finding indicates programmatic efforts and future research may need to target specific location needs given the unique needs of the audience, rather than a one-size-fits-all approach.

Introduction

With agriculture being the largest industry in Georgia, contributing $73.3 billion annually to the state’s economy (Kane, 2019), the farming population of the state is relied upon heavily to sustain a significant contribution to the state’s economic viability. With such a large portion of the state’s economy dependent upon the success of its rural communities, it only stands to reason the health and wellbeing of those involved in agriculture would be a forefront of consideration. However, little research or programmatic efforts have been solely focused on understanding the impacts mental health and stress play on rural communities, specifically farming communities.

According to the U.S. Census, rural is defined as “all territory, persons, and housing units not defined as urban” (Ratcliffe et al., 2016, p. 2). In 2010, this defined area accounted for approximately 97% of the U.S. land area and 19.3% of the population (Ratcliffe et al., 2016). According to the most recent documents, in Georgia during 2012, 38.6% of the state’s land was used for agricultural purposes and in 2018, 17.1% of its population occupied rural lands (Rural Health Information Hub, 2019). As the demands and challenges of production agriculture continue to grow and unfold, rural communities become ever increasingly essential.

Over the last decade, a prevalent issue in rural U.S. communities has become mental health and stress (Centers for Disease Control, 2019a). Primary indicators of this issue are documented in the increase of pharmaceutical addiction and suicide rates (Centers for Disease Control, 2019b; Centers for Disease Control, 2019d). With approximately 46 million individuals living in these rural areas, this level of social disparity is observable, but often overlooked Centers for Disease Control, 2019c). In 2018, 13.9 suicide deaths per 100,000 people within the population of Georgia were reported (America’s Health Rankings, 2019). Additionally, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has reported an increased risk of suicide in rural areas than urban populations (Clay, 2014). Experts have attributed this increased risk due to higher use of drugs and alcohol, with fewer health care providers and hospital access, as well as access to firearms (Clay, 2014). This increased risk poses many risks to the overall health and vitality of rural communities. In the following section, considerations to rural stress/mental health within rural communities is expounded upon to further elucidate the issues mentioned above.

Conceptual Framework

The boundaries of rurality can often be visually depicted with open fields along a highway; however, much like mental health the definition of rural is much more complex and divisive. While the U.S. Census Bureau defines rural as not urban, and defines urban as those areas with 50,000 or more residents (Ratcliffe et al., 2016) other sources apply culture, lifestyle, and clusters of residents (Ratcliffe et al., 2016; Vanderbroom & Madigan, 2007). The current study was not developed to add validity to a definition of rural, rather to recognize that the needs and barriers of those residents in less densely populated areas, specifically farming areas, are different than those in urbanized areas.

Rural Culture

With pharmaceutical addiction and suicide rates on the rise in rural communities, the need to identify the associated catalyst is essential. One contributing stressor is the overall work environment. By working and living in isolated areas and having little time away from work, farmers have minimal separation between work and personal life (Gregoire, 2002). In addition, the farming community can include living in small, tight-knit rural communities, which can lack privacy. These factors can create additional stress and exhaustion, which can lead to accidents (Naik, 2017). Compounding that stress, agriculture and farming have unique and variable factors that can add stress and uncertainty. For example, Kolstrup et al (2013) identified that dairy farmers have stressors such as diseases related to livestock, taxes on their production, and negative attitudes of the public toward their practices. These stresses can take a toll on mental health and wellbeing, leading to self-prescribed methods of coping (Clay, 2014; Gregoire, 2002; Naik, 2017).

When seeking assistance for issues related to mental health, male farmers experience barriers like distance to appointments, lack of financial access for help, and stigma associated with mental health and treatment or help-seeking behaviors (Roy, Tremblay, & Robertson, 2014). Research has demonstrated that sometimes in the farming community, the idea of the masculine farmer as tough and self-reliant can conflict with individuals seeking help for mental health issues, which can be construed as a sign of weakness (Naik, 2017). Education, and especially educating young people, in rural areas can help destigmatize mental health and the act of seeking mental health help (Gregoire, 2002). Research has recommended for both governmental and non-governmental organizations to assist with mental health education, awareness, and stigma associated with mental health (Gregoire, 2002).

In New Zealand and Australia, research has recommended implementing preventative programming, online initiatives, events, workshops, and publications to encourage a discussion about mental health in the agricultural industry (Naik, 2017). Mental health programming can assist in opening the conversation and breaking the taboo about mental health in the communities (Naik, 2017), as well as enhance the ability to recognize the signs of mental health issues (El-Amin et al., 2019).

Additionally, farmers are more likely to seek services from people and organizations they trust for health-related information (Kilpatrick et al., 2012). As such, mental health programs need to continue to be outside of traditional medical facilities to help with health in rural and farming communities (Roy et al., 2014). The inclusion of community member volunteers can help with small group counseling sessions and encourage participants to feel more open to expressing their concerns due to their familiarity and living in the same rural community (Thompson & McCubbin, 1987). Research has found that mental health promotion might be better disseminated through other non-governmental networks since most farmers visit their physicians only to deal with obvious physical issues (Gregoire, 2012).

A farmer’s family and other social support systems can help farmers’ deal with stressors they face (Anderson et al., 2012; Fraser et al., 2005). Other close relationships, such as friendships, can help farmers and serve as a coping device to deal with stress (Roy et al., 2014). For example, role models have been found to play an important role in helping address male farmers’ distress and promoting help-seeking behavior for mental health (Roy et al., 2014). Additionally, finding trusted relationships where farmers seek out confidants in their community beyond their immediate farming peers has shown to be important (Roy et al., 2014). Overall, mental health services need to be made more accessible to farmers in a comfortable, trusted environment with trusted people (Polain et al., 2011).

Rural Healthcare

In addition to the individual and contextual challenges associated with rural environments, there are also systemic challenges associated with the rural healthcare system. For example, rural healthcare workers have stressors related to being overbooked with clients, working in multiple locations, a lack of support in staffing due to a high-turnover rate, and frustrations with technology (Hasbrouck & Waddimba, 2017). Research has suggested that healthcare organizations should invest in programming and mentoring to help healthcare workers maintain their health to care for patients, cope with stress, and deal with the stigma of someone receiving help (Hasbrouck & Waddimba, 2017). Previous research demonstrated that mental health services need to be made more accessible, especially to farmers who work closely on their land or who lack mobility (Polain et al., 2011). Additionally, farmers feel physicians need to understand their culture better to treat them more effectively and recognize the risks involved with the integrated relationship between their careers and lifestyle choices (Anderson et al., 2012). Nevertheless, there has been an observable trend to increase mental health literacy and programming in the United States in both rural and urban settings; however, there remains a gap in curriculum catered specifically to rural areas and the nuanced challenges associated within them (El-Amin et al., 2019).

Role of Extension

During the economic crisis in the 1980s, local Extension agents faced many community members dealing with substantial financial loss, changes in their social structure and network, and uncertainty in the future (Molgaard, 1997). People turned to Extension for support because they were viewed as a valued source of information, and people in rural areas trusted their agents during these challenging times (Molgaard, 1997). Programs were set up through the Cooperative Extension Service to develop plans to help farm families come up with strategies to cope and identify stressors through the use of counselors, both professional or peer-trained, to help farm families deal with emotional and physical stress (Thompson & McCubbin, 1987).

In the past, Extension agents have shown to be vital to connecting and engaging the farming community with the health care professional community (Guin et al., 2012). Extension provides access to education that can promote health education while decreasing the health disparities in rural communities (Fitch et al., 2013). Extension agents can serve as change agents, who communicate desired change to others in a community and, with the assistance of volunteers, can help with health education (Rogers, 2003; Wang, 1974). Training designed to improve the capacity of knowledge for Extension agents to identify and deal with mental health issues can result in agents feeling more comfortable dealing with community members, including farmers, who indicate signs of mental health issues (Hossain et al., 2010). In some communities, county Extension agents are trained similarly to community health workers and are ingrained in the local culture (Fitch et al., 2013). Individuals working in healthcare in the communities, such as doctors, might then be able to connect with county Extension agents to create a community-based partnership and help give more robust healthcare access to rural areas (Fitch et al., 2013).

Need for More Literature

 A gap exists in research related to mental health prevention and treatment programming through university Extension in the United States. A large portion of the existing literature base is associated with Australia and New Zealand research associated farmer mental health programming reacting to climate change stressors (Brew, Inder, Allen, Thomas, & Kelly, 2016) and major climatic disasters such as drought (Fuller et al., 2007; Hanigan, Schirmer, & Niyonsenga, 2018; Hossain et al, 2010). Additionally, studies examined India’s agrarian crisis from a national economic crisis in the agricultural industry; however, this research did not specifically focus on issues associated with mental health (Merriott, 2016). There is a need for additional studies on mental health in farmers and farming communities (Gregoire, 2002), as well as evaluating how farmers’ resilience positively affects their mental health in comparison to other population segments (Fraser et al., 2005; Berry et al., 2011). Research within agricultural communities related to mental health would provide a foundation for future programming, both within the context of Extension as well as outside of the extension domain (Gregoire, 2002).

Purpose and Objectives

The purpose of this research was to quantitatively understand the needs and perceptions of Georgia Extension agents about the current state of rural stress and mental health within their rural communities. By capturing the current state of rural stress within their communities, research and programming can be implemented to provide resources and initiatives to serve the communities through Extension.

Two objectives were guiding this research: (1) Identify Georgia Extension Agents’ perceptions of rural stress within their counties to evaluate agents’ comfort and need for programming related to rural stress and mental health for their communities; (2) establish baseline data for Georgia Extension to understand the current state of rural stress and mental health within individual districts.

Methodology

Employing a descriptive research design to better explore Georgia Extension agents’ perceptions of farmer/rural stress, the current study utilized quantitative measures. During a mandatory, annual training, for all Georgia agents in fall 2018, the researchers collected both quantitative and qualitative data to explore the concept of rural stress/mental health in Georgia. For this study, only one scale within the survey is addressed. All agents were required to attend an all-day workshop, where the concept of rural stress/farmer mental was discussed during a 30-minute portion of the day. The agents were asked to participate in an activity and listen to a 5-minute presentation about the state’s current statistics related to rural mental health, and farming suicide rates over the last years. The survey was administered before the workshop session presented information and data to the participants. Georgia has four districts, and the agents were asked to attend the one workshop day in their district. The same workshop and speakers presented the information at all four of the workshop days. All of the workshops were held in the same week, as the presenters and researchers traveled to each of the districts.

Instrument

Questions within the survey addressed agents’ perceived comfort and perceptions of current levels of stress experienced by their community members. The current study was part of a larger project. The current study was focused on a specific scale to determine factors related to rural stress/farmer mental health. The instrument was developed from an instrument used to assess farmer mental health/stress in other regions of the country from a mental health and family well-being expert. The instrument used in the current study was reviewed by a panel of experts to ensure use of relevant terms for Georgia, layout of information, and applicability of topics to Georgia communities. Within the survey, an 8-item, Likert-type scale was used to quantify agent perceptions. The items within the scale were summed and averaged to create an indexed value. The scale was also shown to be a reliable (α = .90) (Field, 2009), with “1” indicating a “low” perception and “5” indicating a “high” perception.

Sample

Out of the 312 agents in Georgia, 281 responses were collected from agent participation at the workshops for a response rate of 90%. In the Northwest district, there were 79 participants, 63 participants in the Northeast district, 70 participants in the Southwest district, and 69 participants in the Southeast district. Some participants selected not to answer all the questions; however, since this was an exploratory survey for the state, all responses were kept and analyzed.

Results

Of the respondents, 133 (46.7%) classified themselves as Agricultural and Natural Resource agents, 97 (34.2%) classified themselves as 4-H agents, 40 classified themselves as Family and Consumer Sciences agents (14.1%), 8 (2.9%) classified themselves as other, and 6 (2.1%) chose not to respond.

Within the survey, agents were asked to assess the current level of stress/difficulty for farm and farm-related operations in their county. Overall, on a 5-point scale with “1” indicating “low” and “5” indicating “high”, agents perceived the current level of stress in their community to be slightly above “moderate” (M = 3.54, n = 271) (Table 1). Examining this question by district, the Northwest district had a mean of 3.32 (n = 75) or “moderate” and the Northeast district had a mean of 3.58 (n = 59). The Southwest district indicated the level of stress to be 3.74 (n = 68) and the Southeast district indicated a level of stress at 3.54 (n = 69).

Table 1
Level of Perceived Stress by District and Georgia
LocationNMSDMin.Max
Northwest753.321.031.05.0
Northeast593.58.722.05.0
Southwest683.74.922.05.0
Southeast693.54.961.05.0
Georgia2713.54.931.05.0

To further understand specific factors that may be associated with the current level of stress or difficulty for farms in their districts, agents were asked eight questions about specific elements in farming that may contribute to stress level (Table 2).

Table 2
Extension Agents' Perceptions of Factors Related to Rural/Farm Stress
 f%f%f%f%f%
concern for weather-related issues83.02710.17026.18832.87528.0
concern to make ends meet62.2259.36825.49736.27226.9
concern for cash-flow in the operation93.5186.99034.78633.25621.6
concern to get needed financing to continue93.4259.69536.48331.84918.8
concern for market and trade issues93.4238.89837.59034.54115.7
concern for crop/livestock prices114.2166.19436.010038.34015.3
concern for mental health/suicide risk249.16223.511142.05018.9176.4

Conclusions/Discussion/Recommendations

The survey provided a snapshot of Georgia Extension agents’ perceptions of their communities’ current need with regard to rural stress/farmer mental health. The data indicated most districts to be in similar positions with rural stress. Of an important note, the Southwest and Southeast districts did report more distressing levels of concern about rural stress. In utilizing these findings, it is important to note the timeline of the survey data collection. This survey data was collected within two weeks after Hurricane Michael caused great destruction to the agricultural industry in South Georgia. Therefore, these findings should be cautiously viewed with that external factor in mind. Additionally, specific factors that impact rural stress (weather issues, market prices, etc.) were similar throughout the state, with the Northwest district indicating a lower level of concern, while the Southeast and Southwest reported slightly higher levels of concern. While this data provides a baseline for Georgia Extension agents’ perceptions, the findings from this research cannot be applied to any other populations or locations; however, it can give a starting point for providing valuable resources to the communities.

Based upon the objectives for this research, the following recommendations were developed to assist in future work and research around rural stress/farmer mental health for Georgia. From an applied perspective, future discussions and trainings should be developed to help Georgia Extension agents identify resources for rural stress/mental health and how to effectively share that information with their community members. This coincides with previous research to recognize the unique needs and qualities of each community, specifically as they relate to existing cultures, which be accounted for when engaging them in mental health/stress efforts (Gregoire, 2002; Naik, 2017). Additionally, engaging other populations (farmers, community opinion leaders, faith-based leaders, etc.) to evaluate their perceptions of rural stress/mental health in the community may contribute to fully understanding the scope of stress/mental health in the community.

Future research should examine more in-depth Extension agents’ preparedness and comfort level in addressing rural stress/mental health in their communities. By collecting more in-depth demographic information, more specific conclusions about unique qualities, characteristics, and experiences that better position Extension agents to address rural stress/mental health in their communities could be developed. This could lead to creating more specialized training and resources targeted toward specific community and agent needs and mentorship programs. Additionally, future research should work with community members to identify the most appropriate form of communicating information about rural stress/mental health with specific audiences. The current research indicates a one-size-fits-all approach may not be beneficial for all areas, even in the same state.

The reality of suicide rates, even if only focused on the U.S. in this research context, warrants the need to consider this issue in other countries, specifically as it relates to U.S.-based researchers and specialists immersing themselves into local issues and cultural dynamics.

References

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Berry, H. L., Hogan, A., Owen, J., Rickwood, D., & Frager, L. (2011). Climate change and farmers’ mental health: Risks and responses. Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health, 23(2), 1195-1325. https://doi.org/10.1177/1010539510392556

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Fraser, C. E., Judd, S. F., Humphreys, J. S., Frager, L. J., & Henderson, A. (2005). Farming and mental health problems and mental illness.  International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 51(4), 340-349. https://doi.org/10.1177/0020764005060844

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Bats and Beyond: Communicating Wildlife and Climate Change Empathy to Youth through an Electronic Field Trip

Peyton N. Beattie, University of Florida, pbeattie@ufl.edu

Kevin W. Kent, University of Florida, kevin.kent@ufl.edu

Teresa E. Suits, University of Florida, teresasuits@ufl.edu

Jamie L. Loizzo, University of Florida, jloizzo@ufl.edu

J. C. Bunch, University of Florida, bunchj@ufl.edu

PDF Available

Abstract

Today’s youth must take decisive action to maintain and improve the world by being environmentally literate through understanding, interpreting, and applying information and media about the environment and human interactions. Ample room exists for science communicators and educators to work together to develop real-world programs for connecting youth audiences with scientists and science research to impact environmental perceptions, attitudes, and learning. Universities, Cooperative Extension, museums, and schools can use electronic field trips (EFTs) as a vehicle to connect youth audiences to scientists globally. Sixty-four classrooms in the United States and Trinidad and Tobago participated in an EFT at the University of Florida Bat Houses with three mammalogists from the Florida Museum of Natural History. The study examined students’ attitudes toward wildlife and climate change through pre/post-surveys, before and after participating in the EFT.

Introduction

Environmental communication leverages media with writing and imagery as a vehicle to educate, inform, and sometimes even persuade audiences about the environment and human relationships with the natural world. Today’s youth must take decisive action to maintain and improve the world by being environmentally literate through understanding, interpreting, and applying information and media about the environment and human interactions (Roth, 1992). Environmental literacy has an established history and is often defined as a combination of scientific knowledge, problem-solving, and critical thinking for fostering and growing positive environmental behaviors and attitudes (Cole, 2007; Roth, 1992). Increasing opportunities exist for environmental communicators and educators to develop innovative programs for addressing environmental engagement and literacy in youth audiences. The American Association for the Advancement of Science’s (AAAS; 2009) Project 2061 includes benchmarks such as The Living Environment and The Nature of Science with specific recommendations for introducing PK-12 youth to environmental concepts, as well as how scientists work to investigate problems and find solutions. The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS; 2013) focus on cross-cutting concepts such as ecosystems, genetics, and global climate change. The National Research Council (NRC; 2000) suggested connecting PK-12 classrooms with the broader community to expand youth engagement and learning with a variety of concepts. Therefore, ample room exists for science communicators and educators to work together to develop real-world programs for connecting youth with scientists and science research to impact environmental perceptions, attitudes, and learning.

Literature Review

The following literature review including sub-sections about EFTs, wildlife empathy, and climate change attitudes informed the study design.

Electronic Field Trips (EFTs)

Communication and education programs can introduce youth to environmental science concepts, careers, and locations during a typical school day via online interactive technologies (Cassady et al., 2008; Garner, 2004; Tuthill & Klemm, 2002). Ideally, children should spend direct, in-person time outdoors for many physical and mental benefits, and learning about the world around them (Pate et al., 2011). While it is still highly recommended children directly engage with the environment for deep learning, in-person field trips are often not possible for schools. The cost and logistics to plan and implement traditional field trips have reduced the amount of time teachers can take students off school grounds to unique locations for studying the environment (Tuthill & Klemm, 2002). Instead, educators can leverage EFTs hosted from natural outdoor locations. EFTs can be streamed into classrooms to communicate and raise awareness about environmental issues, related STEM research, and careers (Loizzo et al., 2019).

EFTs (also sometimes referred to as virtual field trips) involve computer mediated-communication between a host location and a student site (Loizzo et al., 2019; Loizzo & Beattie, In Press). The programs can be offered in real-time (i.e., synchronous) via live, interactive web-streamed video or self-paced (i.e., asynchronous) via pre-recorded videos, websites, or virtual reality. Science communicators, educators, and scientists have developed and implemented various topics, formats, and technologies for EFTs. For instance, the Purdue zipTrips program included an EFT about animals, diseases, and genes for middle school students. The 45-minute zipTrips had an in-studio and off-site audience, live interactions with scientists, pre-recorded segments, and integrated activities. The EFTs positively impacted middle schoolers’ perceptions of scientists and their research (Adedokum et al., 2011a; Adedokun et al., 2011b). The EFT examined in this study, called Bats and Beyond, followed a live, interactive web-streamed video format from a university field site with scientists to youth in PK-12 classrooms throughout the United States and Trinidad and Tobago. The EFT included scientists presenting their wildlife and climate change research in real-time, as well as pre-recorded images and footage of bats and international research sites.

Wildlife Empathy

Youth empathy toward environmental issues and ecosystems via an introduction to animal models can be achieved through EFTs. Research has shown visitors to informal learning spaces such as zoos and aquariums often hold pre-existing, high empathy for wildlife (Young et al., 2018). Thus, there is a need to reach youth who may not necessarily have access to or typically visit settings to learn about animals. Young et al. (2018) defined empathy as, “…a stimulated emotional state that relies on the ability to perceive, understand and care about the experiences or perspectives of another person or animal” (p. 329). It is imperative that environmental communication and education programs depicting human-animal interactions keep empathy in mind, when developing key messages and images.

Kellert (1984) found the most frequent attitude type children hold toward animals is ‘humanistic’ – meaning they have strong affection toward animals, mostly pets. Prior research showed introducing youth to animals can positively impact their awareness, attitudes, and empathy toward bigger picture environmental issues such as endangered species and climate change (Morgan & Gramann, 1989). Morgan and Gramann (1989) found that when a wildlife expert demonstrated engagement with snakes, such as holding a snake for others to see and touch, people often became vicariously less fearful of the animals. Wagler and Wagler (2014) found educational activities which included live endangered spiders reduced children’s (i.e., ages 10-11) fear and disgust of spiders. Hence, animal models have the potential to influence attitudes toward animals and increase human concern for how changes in the environment are impacting animals.

Climate Change Attitudes

According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, 2014), the current warming trend beginning in the mid-20th Century can be attributed to human activity with a probability greater than 95%. Via the Cloud and Land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) and the NASA/German Aerospace Center Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE), NASA (2018) recorded a .12-inch increase in sea levels since 2012, with recorded ice losses of 241.4 billion tons per year in Antarctica. 

Children learn about climate change inside and outside of the classroom. Researchers have found that school-based interventions can increase climate change knowledge for children in Bangladesh (Kabir et al., 2015). The National Education Association (Flannery, 2017) advised teachers to use accurate data, local stories, cross-curricular connections, and inspiration for climate change education. Outside of the classroom, informal science learning centers (ISLCs) like zoos, museums, or libraries serve as a “safe” neutral space for visitors to learn about environmental issues and develop attitudes (Clayton et al., 2009). Humans have developed attitudes, perceptions, and beliefs about climate change. Affective (i.e., emotional), beliefs (i.e., values), cognitive (i.e., knowledge), and behavioral intentions are used to explain environmental attitudes (Christensen & Knezek, 2015). Research has shown young people form attitudes on climate change through their education and can be influenced by teacher figures. Middle school children in North Carolina reflected on their teacher’s beliefs that climate change is happening, but they formed their own opinions about climate change, which differed from their teacher’s (Stevenson et al., 2016). One study found science teachers’ teaching styles differed on climate change, based on their political ideologies (Plutzer & Lee, 2018).

Conceptual Frameworks

Social Cognitive Theory (SCT; Bandura, 2009) and the Theory of Planned Behavior (Ajzen, 1991) were conceptually used to guide this study.

Social Cognitive Theory

SCT guided this study to inform how the vicarious learning environment (Bandura, 2009) of an EFT impacted students’ attitudes toward wildlife and climate change. Additionally, the researchers examined how the participating teachers perceived the students’ attitudes toward wildlife and climate change within the vicarious learning program. The environment in which a person lives and the behaviors they see modeled is how their learning is constructed, rather than construction through individual autonomy (Bandura, 1999, 2009). Therefore, a person can witness an event and use “cognitive, vicarious, self-regulatory, and self-reflective” processes to determine how that event will shape their knowledge and behavior (Bandura, 2009, p. 95). Within this study’s EFT program context, researchers used a pre-/post-survey to investigate how the students used cognitive, vicarious, self-regulatory, and self-reflective processes to adjust their attitudes regarding wildlife and climate change.

The EFT developers intentionally designed and viewed Bats and Beyond as a vicarious learning experience. The EFT featured scientist role models, photos, and video content that could impact participants’ understanding of the specific content within the program, including bats, mammalogy and specimen curation, and climate change through a segment dedicated to each of these content areas. In turn, through vicariously viewing the role models and visual content, the EFT aimed to influence youths’ wildlife empathy and climate change attitudes.

Theory of Planned Behavior

The Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB; Ajzen, 1991) also conceptually served as a lens for researchers to understand students’ behavioral beliefs regarding wildlife empathy and climate change through their attitude changes before and after the EFT. TPB aimed to predict a person’s behavior based on their intentions and perceived behavioral control (Ajzen, 1991). Intent to perform an action is determined by a person’s internal will to want to complete such behavior. Still, that intent can also be limited by factors outside the person’s control, including money, time, or skills (Ajzen, 1991). Considering a person’s intrinsic motivation to perform an action coupled with a person’s actual ability to perform the behavior leads to actual control of the behavior (Ajzen, 1991). Ajzen (1991) noted, “perceived behavior control, together with behavioral intention, can be used directly to predict behavioral achievement” (p. 184).

The EFT developers and scientist role models intentionally included visual and audio content discussing human impacts on wildlife/bats and the environment. Specifically, developers and scientist role models aimed to use the example of how sea level rise and climate change has impacted bats’ habitats and migration patterns to impact youths’ understanding of climate change and intentions to participate in conservation behaviors for improving the environment.

Purpose and Research Questions

The purpose of the current study was to investigate how an environmentally-focused electronic field trip (EFT) program produced by agricultural communication, leadership, and education graduate students impacted participating youth’s wildlife empathy and attitudes toward climate change. Further, the investigation also sought to describe students’ attitudes toward climate change and wildlife empathy. More specially, the following research questions guided this research study:

  • What impact did participation in the EFT have on students’ attitudes toward wildlife?
  • What impact did participation in the EFT have on students’ attitudes toward climate change?
  • What were the teachers’ perceptions of the impact EFTs had on students’ attitudes toward wildlife and climate change? 

The study aligns with multiple topics outlined in the American Association of Agricultural Education (AAAE) Research Agenda. The EFT content and research focus on youth’s climate change and wildlife attitudes addressed complex problems occurring in the world, research priority area seven of the AAAE Research Agenda (Andenoro et al., 2016). Additionally, the study implemented new technologies, practices, and products to lead change in youth’s attitudes about wildlife and climate change, which is a focus of research priority area two of the agenda (Lindner et al., 2016).

Methods

EFT Context

Graduate students at the University of Florida developed, implemented, and assessed the Bats and Beyond EFT program, as part of the fourth author’s Information and Communication Technologies course. The eight graduate students enrolled in the course designed and delivered the EFT with the assistance of three scientists. The EFT was live and web-streamed at the bat houses on the University of Florida campus on November 15, 2018. Two sessions were offered at 2:00 p.m. and 4:00 p.m. EST. The EFT was titled Bats and Beyond to reflect the focus of the program’s content. Three segments were included in the live webcast: (a) an overview of bats, bat houses, and mammalogy careers; (b) an inside look at the university museum’s bat collections; and (c) the mammalogists’ bat genetics research conducted in The Bahamas. As such, three mammalogists from Florida Museum of Natural History volunteered to assist with the EFT. The graduate student course participants included seven master’s and doctoral students specializing in agricultural education, communication, leadership, and Extension and one agricultural and biological engineering doctoral student. 

The Institutional Review Board for Human Subjects Research at the University of Florida approved this study. Teachers were recruited to participate in the EFT through various outlets, including (a) direct email invitation to museum teacher contact lists and agriculture teachers in Florida, (b) word of mouth via students’ personal education contacts, (c) Streaming Science social media, and (d) direct email through Extension offices in Florida. Teachers registered for the EFT via the registration form and indicated their interest in participating in this research. Approved opt-out consent forms were sent home to parents to inform them of their child’s participation in the EFT and anonymous research. Parents who did not wish for the child to participate had the option to sign and return the forms to school. However, no parents opted for their child to not participate.

Study Design

Researchers conducted this study using a survey design approach. Researchers analyzed a sample (i.e., two schools – School A and School B) of the population (i.e., 64 schools participating in the EFT) to understand both tangibles (i.e., demographic data) and intangibles (i.e., student and teacher attitudes; Ary, Jacobs, Sorrensen, & Walker, 2014; Creswell & Creswell, 2018). The student and teacher surveys for this study were developed using Qualtrics, an online survey platform, and disseminated to the teachers who signed up to participate in the EFT via the Qualtrics link provided through email. Teachers distributed the pre- and post-surveys to the students. The population identified for this study was all schools (n = 64) who participated in the Bats and Beyond EFT. The sample for this specific study were the two schools who were classified as the intended audience for the EFT (i.e., middle and high schools) and were the two schools who completed all three surveys disseminated (i.e, the pre-survey, post-survey, and teacher survey). Thus, purposive sampling techniques were used to determine the sample for this study (Ary et al., 2014).

Participant Demographics

There were approximately 330 students from 64 elementary, middle, and high schools who participated in the live EFT webcasts. The two schools examined for this specific study were School A, and School B. School A is located on the eastern coast of central Florida. There were 738 students enrolled in School A in the 2018-2019 school year in grades 9-12 (Public School Review, n.d.). Seventy-five percent of students enrolled in School A were white, 10% of students were Hispanic, 7% of students classified themselves as two are more races, 6% of students were Asian, and 1% of students were black (GreatSchools.org, n.d.). The school-wide gender breakdown for School A was 50% female and 50% male (GreatSchools.org, n.d.). School B is located in north-central Florida. There were 948 students enrolled in School B for the 2018-2019 school year in grades 7-12 (Public School Review, n.d.). Seventy-four percent of students enrolled in School B were white, 13% of students were Hispanic, 10% were black, and 3% classified themselves as two or more races (GreatSchools.org, n.d.). Students’ gender breakdown at School B was 48% female and 52% male (GreatSchools.org, n.d.). For this study, researchers analyzed School A & B, grades 8-12. Specific demographic information regarding the student participant sample are outlined in Table 1. There was one teacher from School A and two teachers from School B for three teachers included in this study.

Table 1
Demographics of Student Participants

Instrumentation

Student Survey

Students participating in the EFT were asked to participate in pre- and post-surveys. The student survey measured students’ level of agreement or disagreement with 19 statements on a 7-point, Likert-type scale. Of the 19 total statements, 16 were analyzed to address the objectives of this study. Ten of the statements regarded wildlife empathy, and six statements regarded climate change. The remaining three statements were outside the scope of this study and were not analyzed. Some of the climate change statements used for this study were adapted from a climate change attitude instrument developed by Christensen and Knezek (2015). Individual item means and standard deviations are reported, thus reliability estimates were not computed because constructs were not developed. Validity is important to quantitative research to ensure the study is accurately measuring what was intended (Ary et al., 2014). Face and content validity of the instruments was determined by graduate students who were heavily involved in the production of the EFT. Face validity was determined by ensuring the questions on the instrument were relevant to the purpose and objectives of the EFT. 

Teacher Survey

Teachers of the participating EFT classrooms were invited to participate in a post-survey. Forty-four statements were included in the teacher survey for the teachers to rate their level of agreement or disagreement. Seven of the 44 statements were used in the analysis of this study because of their direct relation to the students’ attitudes toward wildlife and climate change. This study measured teachers’ level of agreement or disagreement using seven items on a 7-point, Likert-type scale. 

Data Analysis

All objectives of the study were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Individual mean scores and standard deviations were reported for each of the statements included in this study. The original values for the Likert scales were recoded to reflect a 1 to equal strongly disagree and a 7 to equal strongly agree, as the inverse scale was used in the survey. The values were re-coded to increase understanding of the results presented below. The following real limits of the scale were used to interpret the recoded mean scores and standard deviations: 1.00 – 1.49 = strongly disagree, 1.50 – 2.49 = disagree, 2.50 – 3.49 = somewhat disagree, 3.50 – 4.49 = neither agree nor disagree, 4.50 – 5.49 = somewhat agree, 5.50 – 6.49 = agree, 6.50 – 7.00 = strongly agree

Limitations

A limitation of the pre-survey and post-survey design used in this study is the duration between the pre and post-survey not being adequate time to demonstrate larger mean differences regarding students’ attitude change. The nature of this exploratory study and the small sample size does not allow for the results and conclusions of this study to be generalized to everyone who participated in the EFT but rather only explains what occurred in students’ attitudes and perceptions of the teachers from School A and School B.

Results

RQ1. What impact did participation in the EFT have on student’s attitudes towards wildlife?

Students’ highest mean score regarding their attitude toward wildlife for both the pre-survey (M = 5.05, SD = 1.39) and post-survey (M = 5.32, SD = 1.17) was it is important that scientists study bats (see Table 2). The more negative attitude, indicated by the lowest mean score, students reported for both the pre-survey (M = 3.27, SD = 1.54) and post-survey (M = 3.27, SD = 1.63) was related to bats are pests.

Table 2
Student Attitudes toward Wildlife Before and After the EFT
Note. Real limits of the scale: 1.00 – 1.49 = strongly disagree, 1.50 – 2.49 = disagree, 2.50 – 3.49 = somewhat disagree, 3.50 – 4.49 = neither agree nor disagree, 4.50 – 5.49 = somewhat agree, 5.50 – 6.49 = agree, 6.50 – 7.00 = strongly agree

RQ2. What impact did participation in the EFT have on student’s attitudes toward climate change?

The students reported a more positive attitude regarding the item bats are important to our environment for both the pre-survey (M = 5.39, SD = 1.59) and the post-survey (M = 5.58, SD = 1.17; see Table 3). A lower mean score regarding I believe human activity does not cause climate change was reported by the students for both the pre-survey (M = 3.30, SD = 1.81) and post-survey (M = 3.29, SD = 1.77).

Table 3
Student Attitudes toward Climate Change Before and After the EFT
Real limits of the scale: 1.00 – 1.49 = strongly disagree, 1.50 – 2.49 = disagree, 2.50 – 3.49 = somewhat disagree, 3.50 – 4.49 = neither agree nor disagree, 4.50 – 5.49 = somewhat agree, 5.50 – 6.49 = agree, 6.50 – 7.00 = strongly agree

RQ3. What did the teachers perceive the impact of participating in the EFT had on students’ attitudes? 

The teachers’ perceptions regarding the students’ attitudes was the most positive related to I encourage wildlife empathy in my class/program (M = 6.67, SD = .58; see Table 4). The lowest mean score reported by the teachers was regarding my students are concerned about bats (M = 4.33, SD = .58).

Table 4
Teacher Perceptions of Students' Attitudes toward Wildlife and Climate Change (n=3)
Real limits of the scale: 1.00 – 1.49 = strongly disagree, 1.50 – 2.49 = disagree, 2.50 – 3.49 = somewhat disagree, 3.50 – 4.49 = neither agree nor disagree, 4.50 – 5.49 = somewhat agree, 5.50 – 6.49 = agree, 6.50 – 7.00 = strongly agree

Conclusions and Discussion

Wildlife Attitudes

The students maintained a consistent attitude about wildlife before and after the EFT and indicated they somewhat agreed, neither agreed nor disagreed, or somewhat disagreed with nine of the ten statements regarding wildlife empathy. The students’ attitudes towards bats are pests were consistently the most negative and indicated they somewhat disagreed with the statement before and after the EFT. 

The participating students’ attitudes regarding the statement bats are cute moved in a negative direction according to the real limits of the scale between pre-survey and post-survey. The research team discussed this finding and attributed this negative direction in attitude to the pictures of bats and pinned bats exhibited throughout the EFT program. The EFT program exposed the students to what “real” bats look like, whereas students may have only had idealized images of bats in their minds before the EFT program. Some of the bat images the students viewed throughout the EFT are presented in Figure 1.

A picture containing indoor, photo, filled, window

Description automatically generated
Figure 1. A picture of a live, real bat taken by one of the participating mammalogists and a picture of a pinned bat collection taken by a graduate student shown to students throughout the EFT program.

Teachers somewhat agreed their students knew about bats before the EFT. However, the teachers neither agreed nor disagreed that their students were concerned about bats. The teachers strongly agreed wildlife empathy is encouraged in their class/program, and they discuss climate change concepts in their class/program. The students and teachers who participated in the Bats and Beyond EFT neither agreed nor disagreed the students were concerned about bats. Kellert (1984) discussed programs could not solely entertain with animals to have an impact. The findings from this study and Kellert’s (1984) statement indicates a need for children to have prolonged interactions with animals and the environment for deeper learning. Young et al. (2018) confirmed that empathy is a complicated construct, which takes time and multiple interactions to grow.

Climate Change Attitudes

The students’ attitudes toward climate change remained consistent before and after the EFT. The students’ attitudes toward the presented climate change statements ranged from somewhat disagree, neither agree nor disagree, or somewhat agree. The students had the most negative attitude regarding I believe human activity does not cause climate change and indicated they somewhat disagree before and after the EFT.  Teachers somewhat agreed their students are concerned about climate change, and the teachers indicated they discuss climate change in their class/program.

The results of the study indicated students who participated in the Bats and Beyond EFT from School A and School B agreed that bats are essential to the environment after the EFT. Similarly, the teachers who participated in the EFT from School A and School B perceived the EFT increased their students’ understanding of the role bats play in the ecosystem. Understanding the importance of an animal (i.e., bats) to the environment supports Thompson and Gullone’s (2003) research, which reported a positive and statistically significant relationship between humans and how they treat animals and, ultimately, the environment. Additionally, this finding aligns with Wagler and Wagler’s (2014) research that specified animal models positively influence attitudes towards animals and increase concern for how changes in the environment impact animals. The implementation of EFTs has repeatably shown positive impacts for youth audiences. EFTs are important to the agricultural communication field because of its unique position to engage with youth audiences in a dialogue around complex agricultural and natural resources issues rather than just developing content to be passively received by youth audiences. However, Streaming Science’s EFTs are in their infancy, and the team has established a number of recommendations for practice and research to ensure EFTs are continuously increasing impacts with youth audiences around agricultural and natural resources topics. 

Recommendations

Research

Future iterations of the EFT experience could better utilize the question and answer portions of the program to not only respond to questions from youth, but to also ask youth to respond to evaluation-type questions in real-time, such as (a) What do you think is the most important finding of this research?, (b) How do you feel about bats?, and  (c) What are some ideas you have for protecting the environment? In-depth analysis of supplemental materials teachers use in the classroom before and/or after the EFT could be conducted to understand the impact of supplemental materials on student learning outcomes. Researchers could also observe a classroom participating in the EFT and observe the same classroom not participating in the EFT to understand how teachers interact, discuss, and teach climate change and wildlife empathy, as compared to the scientists. There are opportunities to determine if EFTs impact other audiences besides youth (i.e., adults) and impactful with different types of content (i.e., developing complex solutions to complex problems rather than just engaging in dialogue around complex problems). Lastly, can an EFT be developed and hosted that has larger impacts on its audience than previously determined. More substantial impacts include concepts other than attitude, knowledge, and opinions and are geared more toward behavior change and developing complex solutions.

Practice

There is a potential for EFTs to raise awareness and support factual learning (Adedokun et al., 2011a; Adedokun et al., 2011b; Cassady et al., 2008; Stoddard, 2009). However, to impact student attitudes toward wildlife, science communicators and educators should provide supplemental materials or wrap-around experiences to prolong engagement with wildlife and reinforce learning and attitudes. This supplemental material and wrap-around experiences provide an opportunity for Streaming Science to expand their EFT programs by developing such materials or experiences for teachers to use with students. The additional materials should accompany the lessons to ensure that students are interacting with the material for wildlife empathy to be achieved (Young et al., 2018). Additionally, Streaming Science could develop an online community of practice for participating teachers to share content or lessons they have created and taught to add to teachers’ collections of resources. A community of practice for teachers participating in EFTs could open up a dialogue about STEM issues, communication and education strategies, build relationships, and answer questions regarding EFTs for implementation support and best practices.

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An Examination of Organizational Citizenship Behavior Characteristics Amongst Undergraduate Students

Kevan W. Lamm, University of Georgia, KL@uga.edu

Alyssa Powell, University of Georgia, anpowell@uga.edu

Alexa J. Lamm, University of Georgia, alamm@uga.edu

Eric D. Rubenstein, erubenstein@uga.edu

PDF Available

Abstract

In addition to creating engaging learning environments agricultural educators must also focus on preparing the next generation to enter the workforce. The purpose of this study was to examine a potential entry point for both responsibilities. Specifically, this study focused on the organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) characteristics of undergraduate students enrolled in an agricultural education leadership or communication course. Within the literature it is well established that OCBs are related to positive organizational outcomes such as: higher levels of performance and reduced turnover intention. However, there is little research establishing the general OCB characteristics of undergraduate students enrolled in agricultural education leadership or communication courses. Of the five OCB factors examined, students exhibited the highest levels of courtesy followed by altruism; students reported the lowest levels of conscientiousness. The results indicate that agricultural educators in leadership or communication courses may find courtesy as an effective entry point for engaging learners. Additionally, the use of OCBs as a content area may help to provide workforce development opportunities. Preparing individuals with both the technical knowledge required for a career and the skills required for success should be a priority of agricultural educators. The current study provides recommendations and proposes OCBs as a potential candidate for success skill education.

Introduction

For better or worse, companies are corporate machines which exist to make a profit (Hagel et al., 2009). Individuals are the input into these machines, and often, this workforce is sustained by the influx of university-educated post-graduates (Grubb & Lazerson, 2005). In today’s global economy, employees are often required to work in groups comprised of colleagues from different professional, ethnic, socio-economic, and personal backgrounds. Thus, the ability to be a good team player and work effectively with a variety of peers is a highly coveted skill (Clark, 2012). Managers are looking for high-capacity employees who can successfully collaborate with diverse personalities and maintain a network of connections (The Economist, 2018). The National Institute of Food and Agriculture (2015) reported a shortage of 22,500 college-educated employees for open positions within the agricultural industry. Therefore, the responsibility of adequately preparing all graduates entering the agricultural field becomes more critical such that new employees continue to be successful in the changing work environment. 

Education and human resource development typically occur in three locations within the agricultural sector: (1) formalized education (public schools and higher education), (2) workforce education through public and private organizations, and (3) nonformal education programs (Rivera & Alex, 2008). For academia specifically, how can higher education professionals ensure their students are equipped with skills necessary to be marketable in the current job market? One method is developing emotionally intelligent individuals who cultivate an atmosphere of psychological safety. A social confidence characterized by interpersonal trust and mutual respect between team members (Schneider, 2017; Duhigg, 2016), psychological safety is built by behaviors necessary to establish interpersonal bonds, e.g. conversational turn-taking and emotional conversations (Duhigg, 2016). Podsakoff et al. (1990) found the effects of transformational leadership behaviors were mediated by the follower’s trust, implying that even leader behaviors are filtered through follower perceptions. Individuals who feel valued and secure when participating in team discussions are more likely to embrace their full potential and provide the team with innovative ideas and creative solutions (Henderson, 2017). Encouraging students to appreciate the strengths of their peers creates pathways for open communication and may result in the development of individuals who become highly-effective members of high-performing corporate teams (Steenbarger, 2018).

Much research has been conducted regarding the desired traits of students entering careers. To be successful in new agricultural careers, students must obtain skill development in leadership, teamwork, critical thinking, creative problem solving, and adaptability (e.g. Casner-Lotto & Barrington, 2006; Landrum et al., 2010; Paranto & Kelkar, 2000; Rateau et al., 2015). Over time these habits will holistically improve performance and may lead to increased productivity and member satisfaction in the workplace (Steenbarger, 2018). Organ (1988) defined these behaviors as organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs), i.e. discretionary behaviors “not part of the employee’s formal role requirements, [but which] promote the effective functioning of the organization,” (p. 4). Example behaviors include cooperating with coworkers, taking preventative actions against workplace issues, offering suggestions to improve the organization, and making intentional investments in one’s professional development skillset (Brief & Motowidlo, 1986). Therefore, it may be appropriate for agricultural educators to consider the role of these OCBs as both an effective classroom engagement technique and a toolset to prepare learners for the workforce.

A comprehensive review of existing citizenship behavior literature found strong evidence indicating OCBs are related to performance (Podsakoff et al., 2000). This belief is well-founded since OCBs may help to increase employee and managerial productivity, expand resource availability, improve coordination within and across work groups, improve an organization’s retention rate, and boost an organization’s overall adaptability (Podsakoff et al., 2000). In addition, OCBs have been found to relate to quantity and quality of work performance (Podsakoff et al., 1997; Podsakoff & MacKenzie, 1994; Walz & Niehoff, 1996). However, not all characteristics of OCBs impact performance in the same way; some dimensions display stronger evidence for these relationships than others (Podsakoff et al., 2000).

The current study is intended to contribute to meaningful and engaged learning within agricultural education contexts as well as adequately preparing students to engage in the scientific and professional workforce. By examining undergraduate student levels of the five OCB dimensions the study intends to address specific questions such as “what methods, models, and programs are effective in preparing people to work in a global agriculture and natural resource workforce?” (Roberts et al., 2016, p. 31) and “how can delivery of educational programs in agriculture continually evolve to meet the needs and interests of students?” (p. 39). Agricultural educators are at the nexus between engaged learning and workforce preparation. Awareness of learner tendencies may help to inform teaching strategies and learner outcomes (McKeachie & Svinicki, 2013).

Conceptual Framework

Although there are numerous conceptualizations of OCB (e.g. Smith et al., 1983; Moorman & Blakely, 1995; Podsakoff, et al., 2000), the conceptual framework for this research is based on the model proposed by Podsakoff et al. (1990), who identified five dimensions of OCB: altruism, conscientiousness, sportsmanship, courtesy, and civic virtue.

OCB Dimensions

Altruism

Although altruism is a facet of agreeableness in the five-factor personality model (Costa & McCrae, 1992), altruism – as a dimension of OCB – is defined as discretionary behaviors which help a specific individual with an organizationally relevant task or problem, (Podsakoff, et al., 1990). This behavior should not be perceived as mere charity nor precipitated by personality-based dispositions that predispose individuals towards helping others (Khalil, 2004). In this context, altruism is a voluntary willingness to assist a colleague with a work-related task (Podsakoff & MacKenzie, 1994).

Conscientiousness

It is important to note that while conscientiousness is one of the factors in the widely-accepted five-factor personality model (Costa & McCrae, 1992), this is not the context meant when referring to conscientiousness relative to OCB. As a dimension of OCB, conscientiousness characterizes the practice of voluntarily completing task-related behaviors at a level “well beyond the minimum role requirements,” (Podsakoff et al., 1990, p.115). This dimension is difficult to distinguish from in-role behavior because the distinction lies primarily in the degree to which the task is performed, not necessarily the nature of the task itself (Organ, 1988).

Sportsmanship

Sportsmanship consists of an individual’s willingness to assist others or tolerate less than ideal circumstances without complaint or perceived offense (Podsakoff et al., 1997; Podsakoff et al., 1990; Podsakoff & MacKenzie, 1994). This behavior involves the ability to maintain a positive demeanor, a state of general agreeableness, and a willingness to sacrifice personal interests for the good of the group (Podsakoff et al., 2000).

Courtesy

Courtesy is defined as a voluntary action that seeks to prevent the occurrence of work-related problems with other peers (Podsakoff et al., 1990; Podsakoff & MacKenzie, 1994). Examples of these behaviors include notifying superior of an absence or holding a meeting with team members to assign task-related responsibilities. Within the workplace, courtesy had a significant positive relationship with the quality of supervisory/subordinate relationships (Tanksy, 1993).

Civic Virtue

Civic virtue describes behaviors that exhibit concern for the organization and includes the individual’s responsibility to participate in the larger group (Podsakoff et al., 1990; Podsakoff & MacKenzie, 1994; Podsakoff et al., 1997). For example, these actions may involve offering constructive criticism to elevate work-group effectiveness, which may result in increased resource availability or enhanced efficacy (Podsakoff, et al., 1997).

OCBs in Education

Within the existing literature base, there is a noticeable dearth of studies examining OCB levels among undergraduate students in higher education. Many of the studies concerning OCBs in education examine antecedents of instructor-level OCBs (e.g. Somech & Ron, 2007; Kagaari & Munene, 2007) or the influence of instructor-level OCBs on various outcomes, (e.g. Khalid et al., 2010; Allison et al., 2001; Rose, 2012; Jimmieson et al., 2010).

As it relates to antecedents of instructor-level OCBs, previous research has found enabling school structures and academic optimism both had a positive relationship with instructor OCB levels (Messick, 2012). Kagaari and Munene (2007) found that lecturer overall OCB level was statistically significantly related to individual’s ability to plan, organize, and supervise others. Additionally, perceived superior support and collectivism both had positive relationships with altruism, conscientiousness, sportsmanship, civic virtue, and overall instructor-OCB levels, while negative affectivity had a negative relationship with these same instructor OCB dimensions (Somech & Ron, 2007).

Examining the effects of professor OCB levels on their undergraduate students’ success, Khalid et al. (2010) found both instructor-level altruism and courtesy positively predicted student academic performance. Jimmieson et al. (2010) found that teacher levels of civic virtue were positively related to job efficacy which in turn had a positive effect on student quality of school life.  Additionally, Rose (2012) found that faculty reporting higher OCB-I levels (i.e. altruism or interpersonal helping behaviors) reported higher student contact hours and those reporting higher levels of OCB-O (i.e. helping behaviors directed toward overall organization) reported a greater number of presentations and increased service on institutional committees.

At the student level, Allison et al. (2001) examined student academic performance based on: student productivity, as measured by student’s semester course load and associated semester GPA, and overall GPA. Results indicated that student sportsmanship and conscientiousness were positively related with student GPA. Additionally, sportsmanship, conscientiousness, civic virtue as well as overall OCB levels were positively related to student productivity (Allison et al., 2001). At the more general level, LeBlanc (2014) examined possible antecedents of OCBs in college students. Results indicated gender was positively related to a willingness to engage in or actual engagement in OCBs, and female students were more likely to report higher OCB levels. Additionally, religious affiliation had a positive relationship with student OCB levels, as students who identified as devout members of religious faiths reported higher levels of OCBs. Undergraduate major also had a statistically significant relationship with engagement in, or willingness to engage in OCBs, with students who majored in social sciences (i.e. helping professions) reporting higher levels of OCBs than students majoring in business or STEM related fields (LeBlanc, 2014). However, LeBlanc (2014) clarifies that this association may not be due to the specific major of students but rather the characteristics inherent in students who choose those particular majors. The present study extends upon the results of LeBlanc (2014) with a particular focus on level of OCB amongst undergraduate students enrolled in agricultural education leadership or communication courses.

Purpose and Research Objectives

The purpose of this study is to examine the five dimensions of OCB amongst undergraduate students enrolled in agricultural education leadership or communication courses. As such, this study is driven by the following research objectives:

  1. Describe individual levels of altruism amongst undergraduate students enrolled in agricultural education leadership or communication courses.
  2. Describe individual levels of conscientiousness amongst undergraduate students enrolled in agricultural education leadership or communication courses.
  3. Describe individual levels of sportsmanship amongst undergraduate students enrolled in agricultural education leadership or communication courses.
  4. Describe individual levels of courtesy amongst undergraduate students enrolled in agricultural education leadership or communication courses.
  5. Describe individual levels of civic virtue amongst undergraduate students enrolled in agricultural education leadership or communication courses.
  6. Examine whether OCB levels were statistically significantly different between classes.

Methods

A descriptive study was employed to meet these research objectives. Undergraduate students enrolled in agricultural education leadership or communication courses was the population of interest for the study. A purposive sample of five courses were selected across two universities, and included both agricultural leadership and agricultural communication courses. Specifically, four courses were from an agricultural leadership course taught over four semesters at the University of Florida from 2013 (n = 32), 2014 (n = 44), spring 2015 (n = 40), and fall 2015 (n = 39). The other class was from an agricultural communications course taught over one semester at University of Georgia in 2018 (n = 81). The agricultural leadership course was taught by the same instructor all four times and was focused on leadership in groups and teams. The course included lecture, service learning, and team projects. Enrollment was open to students across the university and included both agricultural majors, as well as individuals from other colleges across the university. The agricultural communication course was taught by a different instructor and included lecture and project-based learning. Again, enrollment was open to students across the university and included both agricultural majors, as well as individuals from other colleges at the university. It is important to note that the data analyzed within this study capitalizes on data previously collected within the Lamm et al. (2017) sample. The current study broadens the results of the previous one in several notable ways. While the previous study centered on personality analysis, this study concentrates on examining organizational citizenship behavior trends across undergraduate students enrolled in agricultural education leadership and communication courses. These disclosures are made based on existing recommendations for clarity (Kirkman & Chen, 2011).

Data were collected using a paper-based questionnaire, which was distributed, completed, and recollected for analysis during a single class period. A total of 236 responses were obtained for an effective response rate of 100%; however, incomplete responses contributed to lower response rates reported at the individual scale level.

Demographics were self-reported by each respondent. Of the respondents, 68.2%

(n = 161) were female, and 30.1% (n = 71) were male. Regarding university classification, 13.1% (n = 31) of respondents were freshmen, 14.4% (n = 34) were sophomores, 30.1% (n = 71) were juniors, and 41.9% (n = 99) were seniors. As for racial demographics, 84.3% (n = 199) of respondents indicated they were white, 8.1% (n = 19) indicated they were Black or African American, 7.2% (n = 17) indicated they were Asian or Pacific Islander, 0.4% (n = 1) indicated they were American Indian or Alaska Native. Individuals were able to select as many race categories as they felt applied, therefore total counts may not match overall response rate. Respondents indicated an age range between 18 and 48 (M = 21.34, SD = 3.03). Respondent major information was not collected as part of the research study; however, respondents represented agricultural undergraduate majors including agricultural education, animal sciences, and horticulture, as well as other majors within the university including, business, journalism, engineering, family and consumer sciences, and so forth.

Individual-level OCB scores for each dimension were collected using the 24-point scale developed by Podsakoff et al. (1990).  Responses were rated on a five-point, Likert-type scale, with possible response ranging from 1 = strongly disagree to 5 = strongly agree. Five scale items measured conscientiousness, including “I obey company rules and regulations even when no one is watching.” Sportsmanship was measured with five scale items, for example, “I consume a lot of time complaining about trivial matters.” Four scale items measured civic virtue and included “I attend meetings that are not mandatory but are considered important.” Courtesy was measured by five scale items, for example, “I am mindful of how my behavior affects other people’s jobs.” Altruism was measured by five scale items, including “I willingly help others who have work-related problems.”

 As a measure of internal consistency and reliability, Cronbach’s α coefficient was calculated for each of the five dimension indices, as well as the overall OCB index. In particular, the altruism index was found to have a Cronbach’s α coefficient of 0.84, the conscientiousness index was found to have an α coefficient of 0.65, the sportsmanship index was found to have an α coefficient of 0.76, the courtesy index was found to have an α coefficient of 0.77, and the civic virtue index was found to have an α coefficient of 0.70. The overall instrument had an α coefficient of 0.85.

The data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 25. Descriptive statistics were calculated to quantify levels of OCBs amongst undergraduate students enrolled in agricultural education leadership or communication courses. A one-way ANOVA was used to determine whether OCB observations were statistically significantly different between classes, or whether OCB values were not statistically significantly different. A significance level of .05 was determined a priori.

Results

Descriptive statistics, including mean scores, were calculated for the five individual OCB dimensions as well as an overall OCB index score. Results are presented in Table 1.

Table 1
OCB Scale Scores of Undergraduate Students Enrolled in Agricultural Education Leadership or Communication Courses
OCB Scale ScoresnMSDMinMax
Courtesy2354.230.462.805.00
Altruism2344.010.542.005.00
Overall2264.010.363.004.96
Sportsmanship2313.990.641.805.00
Civic Virtue2303.930.512.505.00
Conscientiousness2353.860.532.205.00

Undergraduate students enrolled in agricultural education leadership or communication courses reported the highest mean score in the courtesy dimension (M = 4.23, SD = 0.46) and the lowest mean score for the conscientiousness dimension (M = 3.86, SD = 0.53). The results of the one-way ANOVA tests found no significant effect of class on any of the five OCB dimensions nor overall OCB for undergraduate students completing agricultural education leadership or communication related courses. The results from the ANOVA analyses are displayed in Table 2.

Table 2
Summary of One-Way ANOVA Tests
  SSdfMSFp
AltruismBetween Groups0.36240.0900.3040.875
Within Groups68.2532290.298  
Total68.615233   
ConscientiousnessBetween Groups1.99740.4991.8090.128
Within Groups63.4722300.276  
Total65.470234   
SportsmanshipBetween Groups3.59740.8992.2400.066
Within Groups90.6982260.401  
Total94.295230   
CourtesyBetween Groups0.85440.2130.9810.418
Within Groups50.0182300.217  
Total50.871234   
Civic VirtueBetween Groups0.64640.1620.6270.644
Within Groups57.9912250.258  
Total58.637229   
Overall OCBBetween Groups0.85140.2131.6660.159
Within Groups28.2102210.128  
Total29.061225   

Conclusions, Recommendations, and Implications

The first five research objectives concerned describing the individual levels of each OCB dimension in undergraduate students enrolled in agricultural education leadership or communication courses. We found that within this sample, all of the OCB dimensions were rated relatively high. From their perspective, students primarily agreed that they displayed these OCB dimensions within their class.

The last research objective concerned examining potential OCB differences between classes. The lack of a statistically significant difference observed between classes was somewhat unexpected. For example, LeBlanc (2014) found that undergraduate student OCB levels were likely to be influenced by factors including gender, religious affiliation/devoutness, and most relevantly university major. Within the present study no statistically differences were observed between classes. Therefore, the result of the current study may indicate undergraduate OCB levels of students enrolled in agricultural education leadership or communication courses may be more consistent across course type and university than originally expected. This conclusion is more consistent with previous research amongst university instructors where a range of instructor competencies were not found to be statistically significantly related to OCBs (Kagaari & Munene, 2007).

A primary contribution of the present study is to establish a foundational set of data upon which to expand future agricultural education related research. However, as a main limitation, the scope of the study is limited and thus the generalizability is also limited. To mitigate the limitation, purposive selection of five courses across both agricultural education leadership and communication, from multiple years, with two different instructors, and in two different universities was conducted. Therefore, although the results indicate that there were not any statistically significant differences observed between classes, it is not possible to conclude that the primary observations (e.g. courtesy is highest and conscientiousness is lowest) will remain consistent across all agricultural education leadership and communication courses. An associated recommendation would be for educators to consider administering an instrument like the one from the present study at the beginning of a course to get a general sense for the composition of learners and what teaching strategies might appeal to learners within a specific classroom environment. An additional recommendation would be to replicate the findings of the present study and determine whether there are trends that agricultural educators can use to inform their teaching practice. For example, replicating data collection in agricultural education courses across leadership, communication, teacher preparation, extension, and so forth may help to validate the present findings, or provide a more comprehensive perspective of learner tendencies, doing so would help educators continue to create learning environments that “continually evolve to meet the needs and interests of students” (Roberts et al., 2016, p. 39).

A recommendation for future research would be to examine OCBs as a set of predictor variables for student performance. Specifically, are students going to be more successful in the classroom and in their careers because they display higher OCB levels? Or do students who display higher OCB levels do so because of their success? This distinction has not yet been explored within the literature so it would be interesting to examine the influence of mediating variable, such as conditions which predispose OCBs, on external outcomes. Another recommendation for future research would be to examine whether instructor-level OCBs influence student-level OCBs at the undergraduate level. For instance, if a professor displays high levels of courtesy, or any other OCB dimension, would students be more inclined to reciprocate these behaviors? Support for this line of research doesn’t necessarily result from the conclusions of this study, but the concepts are related and are important to consider within the context of agricultural education more broadly. For example, Khalid et al. (2010) found that instructor-level OCBs positively influence student performance, while Allison et al. (2001) found that student-level OCBs positively influence student performance in terms of productivity and overall GPA. We wonder, is there an interaction between these two relationships? Is it because instructor displays of OCBs appeal to, and catalyze the reciprocal display of, student OCBs, which in turn contribute to increased performance? The literature appears to be inconclusive so it is important to continue to examine the nature of the phenomenon.

In addition to the above recommendations for research, recommendations are also posited for application. Specifically, a recommendation would be for agricultural leadership and communication educators to consider integrating OCB education curriculum into existing course content. The National Council for Agricultural Education (2015) outlined career ready practices amenable to OCB education as part of their Agriculture, Food, and Natural Resources foundational content standards. Specifically, CRP.09.03 states educators should “demonstrate behaviors that contribute to a positive morale and culture in the workplace and community (e.g., positively influencing others, effectively communicating, etc.” (National Council for Agricultural Education, 2015, p. 22). Sub-sections of this section instruct agricultural educators to identify and summarize respectful and purposeful behaviors, to examine personal levels of these behaviors, and to devise, implement, and evaluate strategies for continuation and improvement of these behaviors (National Council for Agricultural Education, 2015). These standards represent clear opportunities for integration of OCB education into the existing AFNR content. We recommend that teachers capitalize on these opportunities by introducing OCB education to students and discussing the characteristics and implications of OCBs in community and career settings.

Beyond the use of OCBs to connect with learners as an engagement strategy, the literature is clear that OCBs can have a positive effect once an individual enters the workforce (e.g., Alkahtani, 2015; Chen et al., 1998; Podsakoff et al., 1997). Taking the time to inform learners about the fundamental characteristics of OCBs and the relationship with many positive workforce outcomes may help individuals to be aware of how their actions and specifically their embodiment of OCB characteristics may help “to prepar[e] people to work in a global agriculture and natural resource workforce” (Roberts et al., 2016, p. 31). The use of OCBs as a content area within educational settings may help to provide workforce development opportunities. Preparing individuals with not only the technical knowledge required for a career, but also for the skills required for success in the workforce should be a priority of agricultural educators. The current study provides recommendations and proposes OCBs as a potential candidate for success skill education.

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