Category

Vol. 71

Bats and Beyond: Communicating Wildlife and Climate Change Empathy to Youth through an Electronic Field Trip

Peyton N. Beattie, University of Florida, pbeattie@ufl.edu

Kevin W. Kent, University of Florida, kevin.kent@ufl.edu

Teresa E. Suits, University of Florida, teresasuits@ufl.edu

Jamie L. Loizzo, University of Florida, jloizzo@ufl.edu

J. C. Bunch, University of Florida, bunchj@ufl.edu

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Abstract

Today’s youth must take decisive action to maintain and improve the world by being environmentally literate through understanding, interpreting, and applying information and media about the environment and human interactions. Ample room exists for science communicators and educators to work together to develop real-world programs for connecting youth audiences with scientists and science research to impact environmental perceptions, attitudes, and learning. Universities, Cooperative Extension, museums, and schools can use electronic field trips (EFTs) as a vehicle to connect youth audiences to scientists globally. Sixty-four classrooms in the United States and Trinidad and Tobago participated in an EFT at the University of Florida Bat Houses with three mammalogists from the Florida Museum of Natural History. The study examined students’ attitudes toward wildlife and climate change through pre/post-surveys, before and after participating in the EFT.

Introduction

Environmental communication leverages media with writing and imagery as a vehicle to educate, inform, and sometimes even persuade audiences about the environment and human relationships with the natural world. Today’s youth must take decisive action to maintain and improve the world by being environmentally literate through understanding, interpreting, and applying information and media about the environment and human interactions (Roth, 1992). Environmental literacy has an established history and is often defined as a combination of scientific knowledge, problem-solving, and critical thinking for fostering and growing positive environmental behaviors and attitudes (Cole, 2007; Roth, 1992). Increasing opportunities exist for environmental communicators and educators to develop innovative programs for addressing environmental engagement and literacy in youth audiences. The American Association for the Advancement of Science’s (AAAS; 2009) Project 2061 includes benchmarks such as The Living Environment and The Nature of Science with specific recommendations for introducing PK-12 youth to environmental concepts, as well as how scientists work to investigate problems and find solutions. The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS; 2013) focus on cross-cutting concepts such as ecosystems, genetics, and global climate change. The National Research Council (NRC; 2000) suggested connecting PK-12 classrooms with the broader community to expand youth engagement and learning with a variety of concepts. Therefore, ample room exists for science communicators and educators to work together to develop real-world programs for connecting youth with scientists and science research to impact environmental perceptions, attitudes, and learning.

Literature Review

The following literature review including sub-sections about EFTs, wildlife empathy, and climate change attitudes informed the study design.

Electronic Field Trips (EFTs)

Communication and education programs can introduce youth to environmental science concepts, careers, and locations during a typical school day via online interactive technologies (Cassady et al., 2008; Garner, 2004; Tuthill & Klemm, 2002). Ideally, children should spend direct, in-person time outdoors for many physical and mental benefits, and learning about the world around them (Pate et al., 2011). While it is still highly recommended children directly engage with the environment for deep learning, in-person field trips are often not possible for schools. The cost and logistics to plan and implement traditional field trips have reduced the amount of time teachers can take students off school grounds to unique locations for studying the environment (Tuthill & Klemm, 2002). Instead, educators can leverage EFTs hosted from natural outdoor locations. EFTs can be streamed into classrooms to communicate and raise awareness about environmental issues, related STEM research, and careers (Loizzo et al., 2019).

EFTs (also sometimes referred to as virtual field trips) involve computer mediated-communication between a host location and a student site (Loizzo et al., 2019; Loizzo & Beattie, In Press). The programs can be offered in real-time (i.e., synchronous) via live, interactive web-streamed video or self-paced (i.e., asynchronous) via pre-recorded videos, websites, or virtual reality. Science communicators, educators, and scientists have developed and implemented various topics, formats, and technologies for EFTs. For instance, the Purdue zipTrips program included an EFT about animals, diseases, and genes for middle school students. The 45-minute zipTrips had an in-studio and off-site audience, live interactions with scientists, pre-recorded segments, and integrated activities. The EFTs positively impacted middle schoolers’ perceptions of scientists and their research (Adedokum et al., 2011a; Adedokun et al., 2011b). The EFT examined in this study, called Bats and Beyond, followed a live, interactive web-streamed video format from a university field site with scientists to youth in PK-12 classrooms throughout the United States and Trinidad and Tobago. The EFT included scientists presenting their wildlife and climate change research in real-time, as well as pre-recorded images and footage of bats and international research sites.

Wildlife Empathy

Youth empathy toward environmental issues and ecosystems via an introduction to animal models can be achieved through EFTs. Research has shown visitors to informal learning spaces such as zoos and aquariums often hold pre-existing, high empathy for wildlife (Young et al., 2018). Thus, there is a need to reach youth who may not necessarily have access to or typically visit settings to learn about animals. Young et al. (2018) defined empathy as, “…a stimulated emotional state that relies on the ability to perceive, understand and care about the experiences or perspectives of another person or animal” (p. 329). It is imperative that environmental communication and education programs depicting human-animal interactions keep empathy in mind, when developing key messages and images.

Kellert (1984) found the most frequent attitude type children hold toward animals is ‘humanistic’ – meaning they have strong affection toward animals, mostly pets. Prior research showed introducing youth to animals can positively impact their awareness, attitudes, and empathy toward bigger picture environmental issues such as endangered species and climate change (Morgan & Gramann, 1989). Morgan and Gramann (1989) found that when a wildlife expert demonstrated engagement with snakes, such as holding a snake for others to see and touch, people often became vicariously less fearful of the animals. Wagler and Wagler (2014) found educational activities which included live endangered spiders reduced children’s (i.e., ages 10-11) fear and disgust of spiders. Hence, animal models have the potential to influence attitudes toward animals and increase human concern for how changes in the environment are impacting animals.

Climate Change Attitudes

According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, 2014), the current warming trend beginning in the mid-20th Century can be attributed to human activity with a probability greater than 95%. Via the Cloud and Land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) and the NASA/German Aerospace Center Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE), NASA (2018) recorded a .12-inch increase in sea levels since 2012, with recorded ice losses of 241.4 billion tons per year in Antarctica. 

Children learn about climate change inside and outside of the classroom. Researchers have found that school-based interventions can increase climate change knowledge for children in Bangladesh (Kabir et al., 2015). The National Education Association (Flannery, 2017) advised teachers to use accurate data, local stories, cross-curricular connections, and inspiration for climate change education. Outside of the classroom, informal science learning centers (ISLCs) like zoos, museums, or libraries serve as a “safe” neutral space for visitors to learn about environmental issues and develop attitudes (Clayton et al., 2009). Humans have developed attitudes, perceptions, and beliefs about climate change. Affective (i.e., emotional), beliefs (i.e., values), cognitive (i.e., knowledge), and behavioral intentions are used to explain environmental attitudes (Christensen & Knezek, 2015). Research has shown young people form attitudes on climate change through their education and can be influenced by teacher figures. Middle school children in North Carolina reflected on their teacher’s beliefs that climate change is happening, but they formed their own opinions about climate change, which differed from their teacher’s (Stevenson et al., 2016). One study found science teachers’ teaching styles differed on climate change, based on their political ideologies (Plutzer & Lee, 2018).

Conceptual Frameworks

Social Cognitive Theory (SCT; Bandura, 2009) and the Theory of Planned Behavior (Ajzen, 1991) were conceptually used to guide this study.

Social Cognitive Theory

SCT guided this study to inform how the vicarious learning environment (Bandura, 2009) of an EFT impacted students’ attitudes toward wildlife and climate change. Additionally, the researchers examined how the participating teachers perceived the students’ attitudes toward wildlife and climate change within the vicarious learning program. The environment in which a person lives and the behaviors they see modeled is how their learning is constructed, rather than construction through individual autonomy (Bandura, 1999, 2009). Therefore, a person can witness an event and use “cognitive, vicarious, self-regulatory, and self-reflective” processes to determine how that event will shape their knowledge and behavior (Bandura, 2009, p. 95). Within this study’s EFT program context, researchers used a pre-/post-survey to investigate how the students used cognitive, vicarious, self-regulatory, and self-reflective processes to adjust their attitudes regarding wildlife and climate change.

The EFT developers intentionally designed and viewed Bats and Beyond as a vicarious learning experience. The EFT featured scientist role models, photos, and video content that could impact participants’ understanding of the specific content within the program, including bats, mammalogy and specimen curation, and climate change through a segment dedicated to each of these content areas. In turn, through vicariously viewing the role models and visual content, the EFT aimed to influence youths’ wildlife empathy and climate change attitudes.

Theory of Planned Behavior

The Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB; Ajzen, 1991) also conceptually served as a lens for researchers to understand students’ behavioral beliefs regarding wildlife empathy and climate change through their attitude changes before and after the EFT. TPB aimed to predict a person’s behavior based on their intentions and perceived behavioral control (Ajzen, 1991). Intent to perform an action is determined by a person’s internal will to want to complete such behavior. Still, that intent can also be limited by factors outside the person’s control, including money, time, or skills (Ajzen, 1991). Considering a person’s intrinsic motivation to perform an action coupled with a person’s actual ability to perform the behavior leads to actual control of the behavior (Ajzen, 1991). Ajzen (1991) noted, “perceived behavior control, together with behavioral intention, can be used directly to predict behavioral achievement” (p. 184).

The EFT developers and scientist role models intentionally included visual and audio content discussing human impacts on wildlife/bats and the environment. Specifically, developers and scientist role models aimed to use the example of how sea level rise and climate change has impacted bats’ habitats and migration patterns to impact youths’ understanding of climate change and intentions to participate in conservation behaviors for improving the environment.

Purpose and Research Questions

The purpose of the current study was to investigate how an environmentally-focused electronic field trip (EFT) program produced by agricultural communication, leadership, and education graduate students impacted participating youth’s wildlife empathy and attitudes toward climate change. Further, the investigation also sought to describe students’ attitudes toward climate change and wildlife empathy. More specially, the following research questions guided this research study:

  • What impact did participation in the EFT have on students’ attitudes toward wildlife?
  • What impact did participation in the EFT have on students’ attitudes toward climate change?
  • What were the teachers’ perceptions of the impact EFTs had on students’ attitudes toward wildlife and climate change? 

The study aligns with multiple topics outlined in the American Association of Agricultural Education (AAAE) Research Agenda. The EFT content and research focus on youth’s climate change and wildlife attitudes addressed complex problems occurring in the world, research priority area seven of the AAAE Research Agenda (Andenoro et al., 2016). Additionally, the study implemented new technologies, practices, and products to lead change in youth’s attitudes about wildlife and climate change, which is a focus of research priority area two of the agenda (Lindner et al., 2016).

Methods

EFT Context

Graduate students at the University of Florida developed, implemented, and assessed the Bats and Beyond EFT program, as part of the fourth author’s Information and Communication Technologies course. The eight graduate students enrolled in the course designed and delivered the EFT with the assistance of three scientists. The EFT was live and web-streamed at the bat houses on the University of Florida campus on November 15, 2018. Two sessions were offered at 2:00 p.m. and 4:00 p.m. EST. The EFT was titled Bats and Beyond to reflect the focus of the program’s content. Three segments were included in the live webcast: (a) an overview of bats, bat houses, and mammalogy careers; (b) an inside look at the university museum’s bat collections; and (c) the mammalogists’ bat genetics research conducted in The Bahamas. As such, three mammalogists from Florida Museum of Natural History volunteered to assist with the EFT. The graduate student course participants included seven master’s and doctoral students specializing in agricultural education, communication, leadership, and Extension and one agricultural and biological engineering doctoral student. 

The Institutional Review Board for Human Subjects Research at the University of Florida approved this study. Teachers were recruited to participate in the EFT through various outlets, including (a) direct email invitation to museum teacher contact lists and agriculture teachers in Florida, (b) word of mouth via students’ personal education contacts, (c) Streaming Science social media, and (d) direct email through Extension offices in Florida. Teachers registered for the EFT via the registration form and indicated their interest in participating in this research. Approved opt-out consent forms were sent home to parents to inform them of their child’s participation in the EFT and anonymous research. Parents who did not wish for the child to participate had the option to sign and return the forms to school. However, no parents opted for their child to not participate.

Study Design

Researchers conducted this study using a survey design approach. Researchers analyzed a sample (i.e., two schools – School A and School B) of the population (i.e., 64 schools participating in the EFT) to understand both tangibles (i.e., demographic data) and intangibles (i.e., student and teacher attitudes; Ary, Jacobs, Sorrensen, & Walker, 2014; Creswell & Creswell, 2018). The student and teacher surveys for this study were developed using Qualtrics, an online survey platform, and disseminated to the teachers who signed up to participate in the EFT via the Qualtrics link provided through email. Teachers distributed the pre- and post-surveys to the students. The population identified for this study was all schools (n = 64) who participated in the Bats and Beyond EFT. The sample for this specific study were the two schools who were classified as the intended audience for the EFT (i.e., middle and high schools) and were the two schools who completed all three surveys disseminated (i.e, the pre-survey, post-survey, and teacher survey). Thus, purposive sampling techniques were used to determine the sample for this study (Ary et al., 2014).

Participant Demographics

There were approximately 330 students from 64 elementary, middle, and high schools who participated in the live EFT webcasts. The two schools examined for this specific study were School A, and School B. School A is located on the eastern coast of central Florida. There were 738 students enrolled in School A in the 2018-2019 school year in grades 9-12 (Public School Review, n.d.). Seventy-five percent of students enrolled in School A were white, 10% of students were Hispanic, 7% of students classified themselves as two are more races, 6% of students were Asian, and 1% of students were black (GreatSchools.org, n.d.). The school-wide gender breakdown for School A was 50% female and 50% male (GreatSchools.org, n.d.). School B is located in north-central Florida. There were 948 students enrolled in School B for the 2018-2019 school year in grades 7-12 (Public School Review, n.d.). Seventy-four percent of students enrolled in School B were white, 13% of students were Hispanic, 10% were black, and 3% classified themselves as two or more races (GreatSchools.org, n.d.). Students’ gender breakdown at School B was 48% female and 52% male (GreatSchools.org, n.d.). For this study, researchers analyzed School A & B, grades 8-12. Specific demographic information regarding the student participant sample are outlined in Table 1. There was one teacher from School A and two teachers from School B for three teachers included in this study.

Table 1
Demographics of Student Participants

Instrumentation

Student Survey

Students participating in the EFT were asked to participate in pre- and post-surveys. The student survey measured students’ level of agreement or disagreement with 19 statements on a 7-point, Likert-type scale. Of the 19 total statements, 16 were analyzed to address the objectives of this study. Ten of the statements regarded wildlife empathy, and six statements regarded climate change. The remaining three statements were outside the scope of this study and were not analyzed. Some of the climate change statements used for this study were adapted from a climate change attitude instrument developed by Christensen and Knezek (2015). Individual item means and standard deviations are reported, thus reliability estimates were not computed because constructs were not developed. Validity is important to quantitative research to ensure the study is accurately measuring what was intended (Ary et al., 2014). Face and content validity of the instruments was determined by graduate students who were heavily involved in the production of the EFT. Face validity was determined by ensuring the questions on the instrument were relevant to the purpose and objectives of the EFT. 

Teacher Survey

Teachers of the participating EFT classrooms were invited to participate in a post-survey. Forty-four statements were included in the teacher survey for the teachers to rate their level of agreement or disagreement. Seven of the 44 statements were used in the analysis of this study because of their direct relation to the students’ attitudes toward wildlife and climate change. This study measured teachers’ level of agreement or disagreement using seven items on a 7-point, Likert-type scale. 

Data Analysis

All objectives of the study were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Individual mean scores and standard deviations were reported for each of the statements included in this study. The original values for the Likert scales were recoded to reflect a 1 to equal strongly disagree and a 7 to equal strongly agree, as the inverse scale was used in the survey. The values were re-coded to increase understanding of the results presented below. The following real limits of the scale were used to interpret the recoded mean scores and standard deviations: 1.00 – 1.49 = strongly disagree, 1.50 – 2.49 = disagree, 2.50 – 3.49 = somewhat disagree, 3.50 – 4.49 = neither agree nor disagree, 4.50 – 5.49 = somewhat agree, 5.50 – 6.49 = agree, 6.50 – 7.00 = strongly agree

Limitations

A limitation of the pre-survey and post-survey design used in this study is the duration between the pre and post-survey not being adequate time to demonstrate larger mean differences regarding students’ attitude change. The nature of this exploratory study and the small sample size does not allow for the results and conclusions of this study to be generalized to everyone who participated in the EFT but rather only explains what occurred in students’ attitudes and perceptions of the teachers from School A and School B.

Results

RQ1. What impact did participation in the EFT have on student’s attitudes towards wildlife?

Students’ highest mean score regarding their attitude toward wildlife for both the pre-survey (M = 5.05, SD = 1.39) and post-survey (M = 5.32, SD = 1.17) was it is important that scientists study bats (see Table 2). The more negative attitude, indicated by the lowest mean score, students reported for both the pre-survey (M = 3.27, SD = 1.54) and post-survey (M = 3.27, SD = 1.63) was related to bats are pests.

Table 2
Student Attitudes toward Wildlife Before and After the EFT
Note. Real limits of the scale: 1.00 – 1.49 = strongly disagree, 1.50 – 2.49 = disagree, 2.50 – 3.49 = somewhat disagree, 3.50 – 4.49 = neither agree nor disagree, 4.50 – 5.49 = somewhat agree, 5.50 – 6.49 = agree, 6.50 – 7.00 = strongly agree

RQ2. What impact did participation in the EFT have on student’s attitudes toward climate change?

The students reported a more positive attitude regarding the item bats are important to our environment for both the pre-survey (M = 5.39, SD = 1.59) and the post-survey (M = 5.58, SD = 1.17; see Table 3). A lower mean score regarding I believe human activity does not cause climate change was reported by the students for both the pre-survey (M = 3.30, SD = 1.81) and post-survey (M = 3.29, SD = 1.77).

Table 3
Student Attitudes toward Climate Change Before and After the EFT
Real limits of the scale: 1.00 – 1.49 = strongly disagree, 1.50 – 2.49 = disagree, 2.50 – 3.49 = somewhat disagree, 3.50 – 4.49 = neither agree nor disagree, 4.50 – 5.49 = somewhat agree, 5.50 – 6.49 = agree, 6.50 – 7.00 = strongly agree

RQ3. What did the teachers perceive the impact of participating in the EFT had on students’ attitudes? 

The teachers’ perceptions regarding the students’ attitudes was the most positive related to I encourage wildlife empathy in my class/program (M = 6.67, SD = .58; see Table 4). The lowest mean score reported by the teachers was regarding my students are concerned about bats (M = 4.33, SD = .58).

Table 4
Teacher Perceptions of Students' Attitudes toward Wildlife and Climate Change (n=3)
Real limits of the scale: 1.00 – 1.49 = strongly disagree, 1.50 – 2.49 = disagree, 2.50 – 3.49 = somewhat disagree, 3.50 – 4.49 = neither agree nor disagree, 4.50 – 5.49 = somewhat agree, 5.50 – 6.49 = agree, 6.50 – 7.00 = strongly agree

Conclusions and Discussion

Wildlife Attitudes

The students maintained a consistent attitude about wildlife before and after the EFT and indicated they somewhat agreed, neither agreed nor disagreed, or somewhat disagreed with nine of the ten statements regarding wildlife empathy. The students’ attitudes towards bats are pests were consistently the most negative and indicated they somewhat disagreed with the statement before and after the EFT. 

The participating students’ attitudes regarding the statement bats are cute moved in a negative direction according to the real limits of the scale between pre-survey and post-survey. The research team discussed this finding and attributed this negative direction in attitude to the pictures of bats and pinned bats exhibited throughout the EFT program. The EFT program exposed the students to what “real” bats look like, whereas students may have only had idealized images of bats in their minds before the EFT program. Some of the bat images the students viewed throughout the EFT are presented in Figure 1.

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Figure 1. A picture of a live, real bat taken by one of the participating mammalogists and a picture of a pinned bat collection taken by a graduate student shown to students throughout the EFT program.

Teachers somewhat agreed their students knew about bats before the EFT. However, the teachers neither agreed nor disagreed that their students were concerned about bats. The teachers strongly agreed wildlife empathy is encouraged in their class/program, and they discuss climate change concepts in their class/program. The students and teachers who participated in the Bats and Beyond EFT neither agreed nor disagreed the students were concerned about bats. Kellert (1984) discussed programs could not solely entertain with animals to have an impact. The findings from this study and Kellert’s (1984) statement indicates a need for children to have prolonged interactions with animals and the environment for deeper learning. Young et al. (2018) confirmed that empathy is a complicated construct, which takes time and multiple interactions to grow.

Climate Change Attitudes

The students’ attitudes toward climate change remained consistent before and after the EFT. The students’ attitudes toward the presented climate change statements ranged from somewhat disagree, neither agree nor disagree, or somewhat agree. The students had the most negative attitude regarding I believe human activity does not cause climate change and indicated they somewhat disagree before and after the EFT.  Teachers somewhat agreed their students are concerned about climate change, and the teachers indicated they discuss climate change in their class/program.

The results of the study indicated students who participated in the Bats and Beyond EFT from School A and School B agreed that bats are essential to the environment after the EFT. Similarly, the teachers who participated in the EFT from School A and School B perceived the EFT increased their students’ understanding of the role bats play in the ecosystem. Understanding the importance of an animal (i.e., bats) to the environment supports Thompson and Gullone’s (2003) research, which reported a positive and statistically significant relationship between humans and how they treat animals and, ultimately, the environment. Additionally, this finding aligns with Wagler and Wagler’s (2014) research that specified animal models positively influence attitudes towards animals and increase concern for how changes in the environment impact animals. The implementation of EFTs has repeatably shown positive impacts for youth audiences. EFTs are important to the agricultural communication field because of its unique position to engage with youth audiences in a dialogue around complex agricultural and natural resources issues rather than just developing content to be passively received by youth audiences. However, Streaming Science’s EFTs are in their infancy, and the team has established a number of recommendations for practice and research to ensure EFTs are continuously increasing impacts with youth audiences around agricultural and natural resources topics. 

Recommendations

Research

Future iterations of the EFT experience could better utilize the question and answer portions of the program to not only respond to questions from youth, but to also ask youth to respond to evaluation-type questions in real-time, such as (a) What do you think is the most important finding of this research?, (b) How do you feel about bats?, and  (c) What are some ideas you have for protecting the environment? In-depth analysis of supplemental materials teachers use in the classroom before and/or after the EFT could be conducted to understand the impact of supplemental materials on student learning outcomes. Researchers could also observe a classroom participating in the EFT and observe the same classroom not participating in the EFT to understand how teachers interact, discuss, and teach climate change and wildlife empathy, as compared to the scientists. There are opportunities to determine if EFTs impact other audiences besides youth (i.e., adults) and impactful with different types of content (i.e., developing complex solutions to complex problems rather than just engaging in dialogue around complex problems). Lastly, can an EFT be developed and hosted that has larger impacts on its audience than previously determined. More substantial impacts include concepts other than attitude, knowledge, and opinions and are geared more toward behavior change and developing complex solutions.

Practice

There is a potential for EFTs to raise awareness and support factual learning (Adedokun et al., 2011a; Adedokun et al., 2011b; Cassady et al., 2008; Stoddard, 2009). However, to impact student attitudes toward wildlife, science communicators and educators should provide supplemental materials or wrap-around experiences to prolong engagement with wildlife and reinforce learning and attitudes. This supplemental material and wrap-around experiences provide an opportunity for Streaming Science to expand their EFT programs by developing such materials or experiences for teachers to use with students. The additional materials should accompany the lessons to ensure that students are interacting with the material for wildlife empathy to be achieved (Young et al., 2018). Additionally, Streaming Science could develop an online community of practice for participating teachers to share content or lessons they have created and taught to add to teachers’ collections of resources. A community of practice for teachers participating in EFTs could open up a dialogue about STEM issues, communication and education strategies, build relationships, and answer questions regarding EFTs for implementation support and best practices.

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An Examination of Organizational Citizenship Behavior Characteristics Amongst Undergraduate Students

Kevan W. Lamm, University of Georgia, KL@uga.edu

Alyssa Powell, University of Georgia, anpowell@uga.edu

Alexa J. Lamm, University of Georgia, alamm@uga.edu

Eric D. Rubenstein, erubenstein@uga.edu

PDF Available

Abstract

In addition to creating engaging learning environments agricultural educators must also focus on preparing the next generation to enter the workforce. The purpose of this study was to examine a potential entry point for both responsibilities. Specifically, this study focused on the organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) characteristics of undergraduate students enrolled in an agricultural education leadership or communication course. Within the literature it is well established that OCBs are related to positive organizational outcomes such as: higher levels of performance and reduced turnover intention. However, there is little research establishing the general OCB characteristics of undergraduate students enrolled in agricultural education leadership or communication courses. Of the five OCB factors examined, students exhibited the highest levels of courtesy followed by altruism; students reported the lowest levels of conscientiousness. The results indicate that agricultural educators in leadership or communication courses may find courtesy as an effective entry point for engaging learners. Additionally, the use of OCBs as a content area may help to provide workforce development opportunities. Preparing individuals with both the technical knowledge required for a career and the skills required for success should be a priority of agricultural educators. The current study provides recommendations and proposes OCBs as a potential candidate for success skill education.

Introduction

For better or worse, companies are corporate machines which exist to make a profit (Hagel et al., 2009). Individuals are the input into these machines, and often, this workforce is sustained by the influx of university-educated post-graduates (Grubb & Lazerson, 2005). In today’s global economy, employees are often required to work in groups comprised of colleagues from different professional, ethnic, socio-economic, and personal backgrounds. Thus, the ability to be a good team player and work effectively with a variety of peers is a highly coveted skill (Clark, 2012). Managers are looking for high-capacity employees who can successfully collaborate with diverse personalities and maintain a network of connections (The Economist, 2018). The National Institute of Food and Agriculture (2015) reported a shortage of 22,500 college-educated employees for open positions within the agricultural industry. Therefore, the responsibility of adequately preparing all graduates entering the agricultural field becomes more critical such that new employees continue to be successful in the changing work environment. 

Education and human resource development typically occur in three locations within the agricultural sector: (1) formalized education (public schools and higher education), (2) workforce education through public and private organizations, and (3) nonformal education programs (Rivera & Alex, 2008). For academia specifically, how can higher education professionals ensure their students are equipped with skills necessary to be marketable in the current job market? One method is developing emotionally intelligent individuals who cultivate an atmosphere of psychological safety. A social confidence characterized by interpersonal trust and mutual respect between team members (Schneider, 2017; Duhigg, 2016), psychological safety is built by behaviors necessary to establish interpersonal bonds, e.g. conversational turn-taking and emotional conversations (Duhigg, 2016). Podsakoff et al. (1990) found the effects of transformational leadership behaviors were mediated by the follower’s trust, implying that even leader behaviors are filtered through follower perceptions. Individuals who feel valued and secure when participating in team discussions are more likely to embrace their full potential and provide the team with innovative ideas and creative solutions (Henderson, 2017). Encouraging students to appreciate the strengths of their peers creates pathways for open communication and may result in the development of individuals who become highly-effective members of high-performing corporate teams (Steenbarger, 2018).

Much research has been conducted regarding the desired traits of students entering careers. To be successful in new agricultural careers, students must obtain skill development in leadership, teamwork, critical thinking, creative problem solving, and adaptability (e.g. Casner-Lotto & Barrington, 2006; Landrum et al., 2010; Paranto & Kelkar, 2000; Rateau et al., 2015). Over time these habits will holistically improve performance and may lead to increased productivity and member satisfaction in the workplace (Steenbarger, 2018). Organ (1988) defined these behaviors as organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs), i.e. discretionary behaviors “not part of the employee’s formal role requirements, [but which] promote the effective functioning of the organization,” (p. 4). Example behaviors include cooperating with coworkers, taking preventative actions against workplace issues, offering suggestions to improve the organization, and making intentional investments in one’s professional development skillset (Brief & Motowidlo, 1986). Therefore, it may be appropriate for agricultural educators to consider the role of these OCBs as both an effective classroom engagement technique and a toolset to prepare learners for the workforce.

A comprehensive review of existing citizenship behavior literature found strong evidence indicating OCBs are related to performance (Podsakoff et al., 2000). This belief is well-founded since OCBs may help to increase employee and managerial productivity, expand resource availability, improve coordination within and across work groups, improve an organization’s retention rate, and boost an organization’s overall adaptability (Podsakoff et al., 2000). In addition, OCBs have been found to relate to quantity and quality of work performance (Podsakoff et al., 1997; Podsakoff & MacKenzie, 1994; Walz & Niehoff, 1996). However, not all characteristics of OCBs impact performance in the same way; some dimensions display stronger evidence for these relationships than others (Podsakoff et al., 2000).

The current study is intended to contribute to meaningful and engaged learning within agricultural education contexts as well as adequately preparing students to engage in the scientific and professional workforce. By examining undergraduate student levels of the five OCB dimensions the study intends to address specific questions such as “what methods, models, and programs are effective in preparing people to work in a global agriculture and natural resource workforce?” (Roberts et al., 2016, p. 31) and “how can delivery of educational programs in agriculture continually evolve to meet the needs and interests of students?” (p. 39). Agricultural educators are at the nexus between engaged learning and workforce preparation. Awareness of learner tendencies may help to inform teaching strategies and learner outcomes (McKeachie & Svinicki, 2013).

Conceptual Framework

Although there are numerous conceptualizations of OCB (e.g. Smith et al., 1983; Moorman & Blakely, 1995; Podsakoff, et al., 2000), the conceptual framework for this research is based on the model proposed by Podsakoff et al. (1990), who identified five dimensions of OCB: altruism, conscientiousness, sportsmanship, courtesy, and civic virtue.

OCB Dimensions

Altruism

Although altruism is a facet of agreeableness in the five-factor personality model (Costa & McCrae, 1992), altruism – as a dimension of OCB – is defined as discretionary behaviors which help a specific individual with an organizationally relevant task or problem, (Podsakoff, et al., 1990). This behavior should not be perceived as mere charity nor precipitated by personality-based dispositions that predispose individuals towards helping others (Khalil, 2004). In this context, altruism is a voluntary willingness to assist a colleague with a work-related task (Podsakoff & MacKenzie, 1994).

Conscientiousness

It is important to note that while conscientiousness is one of the factors in the widely-accepted five-factor personality model (Costa & McCrae, 1992), this is not the context meant when referring to conscientiousness relative to OCB. As a dimension of OCB, conscientiousness characterizes the practice of voluntarily completing task-related behaviors at a level “well beyond the minimum role requirements,” (Podsakoff et al., 1990, p.115). This dimension is difficult to distinguish from in-role behavior because the distinction lies primarily in the degree to which the task is performed, not necessarily the nature of the task itself (Organ, 1988).

Sportsmanship

Sportsmanship consists of an individual’s willingness to assist others or tolerate less than ideal circumstances without complaint or perceived offense (Podsakoff et al., 1997; Podsakoff et al., 1990; Podsakoff & MacKenzie, 1994). This behavior involves the ability to maintain a positive demeanor, a state of general agreeableness, and a willingness to sacrifice personal interests for the good of the group (Podsakoff et al., 2000).

Courtesy

Courtesy is defined as a voluntary action that seeks to prevent the occurrence of work-related problems with other peers (Podsakoff et al., 1990; Podsakoff & MacKenzie, 1994). Examples of these behaviors include notifying superior of an absence or holding a meeting with team members to assign task-related responsibilities. Within the workplace, courtesy had a significant positive relationship with the quality of supervisory/subordinate relationships (Tanksy, 1993).

Civic Virtue

Civic virtue describes behaviors that exhibit concern for the organization and includes the individual’s responsibility to participate in the larger group (Podsakoff et al., 1990; Podsakoff & MacKenzie, 1994; Podsakoff et al., 1997). For example, these actions may involve offering constructive criticism to elevate work-group effectiveness, which may result in increased resource availability or enhanced efficacy (Podsakoff, et al., 1997).

OCBs in Education

Within the existing literature base, there is a noticeable dearth of studies examining OCB levels among undergraduate students in higher education. Many of the studies concerning OCBs in education examine antecedents of instructor-level OCBs (e.g. Somech & Ron, 2007; Kagaari & Munene, 2007) or the influence of instructor-level OCBs on various outcomes, (e.g. Khalid et al., 2010; Allison et al., 2001; Rose, 2012; Jimmieson et al., 2010).

As it relates to antecedents of instructor-level OCBs, previous research has found enabling school structures and academic optimism both had a positive relationship with instructor OCB levels (Messick, 2012). Kagaari and Munene (2007) found that lecturer overall OCB level was statistically significantly related to individual’s ability to plan, organize, and supervise others. Additionally, perceived superior support and collectivism both had positive relationships with altruism, conscientiousness, sportsmanship, civic virtue, and overall instructor-OCB levels, while negative affectivity had a negative relationship with these same instructor OCB dimensions (Somech & Ron, 2007).

Examining the effects of professor OCB levels on their undergraduate students’ success, Khalid et al. (2010) found both instructor-level altruism and courtesy positively predicted student academic performance. Jimmieson et al. (2010) found that teacher levels of civic virtue were positively related to job efficacy which in turn had a positive effect on student quality of school life.  Additionally, Rose (2012) found that faculty reporting higher OCB-I levels (i.e. altruism or interpersonal helping behaviors) reported higher student contact hours and those reporting higher levels of OCB-O (i.e. helping behaviors directed toward overall organization) reported a greater number of presentations and increased service on institutional committees.

At the student level, Allison et al. (2001) examined student academic performance based on: student productivity, as measured by student’s semester course load and associated semester GPA, and overall GPA. Results indicated that student sportsmanship and conscientiousness were positively related with student GPA. Additionally, sportsmanship, conscientiousness, civic virtue as well as overall OCB levels were positively related to student productivity (Allison et al., 2001). At the more general level, LeBlanc (2014) examined possible antecedents of OCBs in college students. Results indicated gender was positively related to a willingness to engage in or actual engagement in OCBs, and female students were more likely to report higher OCB levels. Additionally, religious affiliation had a positive relationship with student OCB levels, as students who identified as devout members of religious faiths reported higher levels of OCBs. Undergraduate major also had a statistically significant relationship with engagement in, or willingness to engage in OCBs, with students who majored in social sciences (i.e. helping professions) reporting higher levels of OCBs than students majoring in business or STEM related fields (LeBlanc, 2014). However, LeBlanc (2014) clarifies that this association may not be due to the specific major of students but rather the characteristics inherent in students who choose those particular majors. The present study extends upon the results of LeBlanc (2014) with a particular focus on level of OCB amongst undergraduate students enrolled in agricultural education leadership or communication courses.

Purpose and Research Objectives

The purpose of this study is to examine the five dimensions of OCB amongst undergraduate students enrolled in agricultural education leadership or communication courses. As such, this study is driven by the following research objectives:

  1. Describe individual levels of altruism amongst undergraduate students enrolled in agricultural education leadership or communication courses.
  2. Describe individual levels of conscientiousness amongst undergraduate students enrolled in agricultural education leadership or communication courses.
  3. Describe individual levels of sportsmanship amongst undergraduate students enrolled in agricultural education leadership or communication courses.
  4. Describe individual levels of courtesy amongst undergraduate students enrolled in agricultural education leadership or communication courses.
  5. Describe individual levels of civic virtue amongst undergraduate students enrolled in agricultural education leadership or communication courses.
  6. Examine whether OCB levels were statistically significantly different between classes.

Methods

A descriptive study was employed to meet these research objectives. Undergraduate students enrolled in agricultural education leadership or communication courses was the population of interest for the study. A purposive sample of five courses were selected across two universities, and included both agricultural leadership and agricultural communication courses. Specifically, four courses were from an agricultural leadership course taught over four semesters at the University of Florida from 2013 (n = 32), 2014 (n = 44), spring 2015 (n = 40), and fall 2015 (n = 39). The other class was from an agricultural communications course taught over one semester at University of Georgia in 2018 (n = 81). The agricultural leadership course was taught by the same instructor all four times and was focused on leadership in groups and teams. The course included lecture, service learning, and team projects. Enrollment was open to students across the university and included both agricultural majors, as well as individuals from other colleges across the university. The agricultural communication course was taught by a different instructor and included lecture and project-based learning. Again, enrollment was open to students across the university and included both agricultural majors, as well as individuals from other colleges at the university. It is important to note that the data analyzed within this study capitalizes on data previously collected within the Lamm et al. (2017) sample. The current study broadens the results of the previous one in several notable ways. While the previous study centered on personality analysis, this study concentrates on examining organizational citizenship behavior trends across undergraduate students enrolled in agricultural education leadership and communication courses. These disclosures are made based on existing recommendations for clarity (Kirkman & Chen, 2011).

Data were collected using a paper-based questionnaire, which was distributed, completed, and recollected for analysis during a single class period. A total of 236 responses were obtained for an effective response rate of 100%; however, incomplete responses contributed to lower response rates reported at the individual scale level.

Demographics were self-reported by each respondent. Of the respondents, 68.2%

(n = 161) were female, and 30.1% (n = 71) were male. Regarding university classification, 13.1% (n = 31) of respondents were freshmen, 14.4% (n = 34) were sophomores, 30.1% (n = 71) were juniors, and 41.9% (n = 99) were seniors. As for racial demographics, 84.3% (n = 199) of respondents indicated they were white, 8.1% (n = 19) indicated they were Black or African American, 7.2% (n = 17) indicated they were Asian or Pacific Islander, 0.4% (n = 1) indicated they were American Indian or Alaska Native. Individuals were able to select as many race categories as they felt applied, therefore total counts may not match overall response rate. Respondents indicated an age range between 18 and 48 (M = 21.34, SD = 3.03). Respondent major information was not collected as part of the research study; however, respondents represented agricultural undergraduate majors including agricultural education, animal sciences, and horticulture, as well as other majors within the university including, business, journalism, engineering, family and consumer sciences, and so forth.

Individual-level OCB scores for each dimension were collected using the 24-point scale developed by Podsakoff et al. (1990).  Responses were rated on a five-point, Likert-type scale, with possible response ranging from 1 = strongly disagree to 5 = strongly agree. Five scale items measured conscientiousness, including “I obey company rules and regulations even when no one is watching.” Sportsmanship was measured with five scale items, for example, “I consume a lot of time complaining about trivial matters.” Four scale items measured civic virtue and included “I attend meetings that are not mandatory but are considered important.” Courtesy was measured by five scale items, for example, “I am mindful of how my behavior affects other people’s jobs.” Altruism was measured by five scale items, including “I willingly help others who have work-related problems.”

 As a measure of internal consistency and reliability, Cronbach’s α coefficient was calculated for each of the five dimension indices, as well as the overall OCB index. In particular, the altruism index was found to have a Cronbach’s α coefficient of 0.84, the conscientiousness index was found to have an α coefficient of 0.65, the sportsmanship index was found to have an α coefficient of 0.76, the courtesy index was found to have an α coefficient of 0.77, and the civic virtue index was found to have an α coefficient of 0.70. The overall instrument had an α coefficient of 0.85.

The data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 25. Descriptive statistics were calculated to quantify levels of OCBs amongst undergraduate students enrolled in agricultural education leadership or communication courses. A one-way ANOVA was used to determine whether OCB observations were statistically significantly different between classes, or whether OCB values were not statistically significantly different. A significance level of .05 was determined a priori.

Results

Descriptive statistics, including mean scores, were calculated for the five individual OCB dimensions as well as an overall OCB index score. Results are presented in Table 1.

Table 1
OCB Scale Scores of Undergraduate Students Enrolled in Agricultural Education Leadership or Communication Courses
OCB Scale ScoresnMSDMinMax
Courtesy2354.230.462.805.00
Altruism2344.010.542.005.00
Overall2264.010.363.004.96
Sportsmanship2313.990.641.805.00
Civic Virtue2303.930.512.505.00
Conscientiousness2353.860.532.205.00

Undergraduate students enrolled in agricultural education leadership or communication courses reported the highest mean score in the courtesy dimension (M = 4.23, SD = 0.46) and the lowest mean score for the conscientiousness dimension (M = 3.86, SD = 0.53). The results of the one-way ANOVA tests found no significant effect of class on any of the five OCB dimensions nor overall OCB for undergraduate students completing agricultural education leadership or communication related courses. The results from the ANOVA analyses are displayed in Table 2.

Table 2
Summary of One-Way ANOVA Tests
  SSdfMSFp
AltruismBetween Groups0.36240.0900.3040.875
Within Groups68.2532290.298  
Total68.615233   
ConscientiousnessBetween Groups1.99740.4991.8090.128
Within Groups63.4722300.276  
Total65.470234   
SportsmanshipBetween Groups3.59740.8992.2400.066
Within Groups90.6982260.401  
Total94.295230   
CourtesyBetween Groups0.85440.2130.9810.418
Within Groups50.0182300.217  
Total50.871234   
Civic VirtueBetween Groups0.64640.1620.6270.644
Within Groups57.9912250.258  
Total58.637229   
Overall OCBBetween Groups0.85140.2131.6660.159
Within Groups28.2102210.128  
Total29.061225   

Conclusions, Recommendations, and Implications

The first five research objectives concerned describing the individual levels of each OCB dimension in undergraduate students enrolled in agricultural education leadership or communication courses. We found that within this sample, all of the OCB dimensions were rated relatively high. From their perspective, students primarily agreed that they displayed these OCB dimensions within their class.

The last research objective concerned examining potential OCB differences between classes. The lack of a statistically significant difference observed between classes was somewhat unexpected. For example, LeBlanc (2014) found that undergraduate student OCB levels were likely to be influenced by factors including gender, religious affiliation/devoutness, and most relevantly university major. Within the present study no statistically differences were observed between classes. Therefore, the result of the current study may indicate undergraduate OCB levels of students enrolled in agricultural education leadership or communication courses may be more consistent across course type and university than originally expected. This conclusion is more consistent with previous research amongst university instructors where a range of instructor competencies were not found to be statistically significantly related to OCBs (Kagaari & Munene, 2007).

A primary contribution of the present study is to establish a foundational set of data upon which to expand future agricultural education related research. However, as a main limitation, the scope of the study is limited and thus the generalizability is also limited. To mitigate the limitation, purposive selection of five courses across both agricultural education leadership and communication, from multiple years, with two different instructors, and in two different universities was conducted. Therefore, although the results indicate that there were not any statistically significant differences observed between classes, it is not possible to conclude that the primary observations (e.g. courtesy is highest and conscientiousness is lowest) will remain consistent across all agricultural education leadership and communication courses. An associated recommendation would be for educators to consider administering an instrument like the one from the present study at the beginning of a course to get a general sense for the composition of learners and what teaching strategies might appeal to learners within a specific classroom environment. An additional recommendation would be to replicate the findings of the present study and determine whether there are trends that agricultural educators can use to inform their teaching practice. For example, replicating data collection in agricultural education courses across leadership, communication, teacher preparation, extension, and so forth may help to validate the present findings, or provide a more comprehensive perspective of learner tendencies, doing so would help educators continue to create learning environments that “continually evolve to meet the needs and interests of students” (Roberts et al., 2016, p. 39).

A recommendation for future research would be to examine OCBs as a set of predictor variables for student performance. Specifically, are students going to be more successful in the classroom and in their careers because they display higher OCB levels? Or do students who display higher OCB levels do so because of their success? This distinction has not yet been explored within the literature so it would be interesting to examine the influence of mediating variable, such as conditions which predispose OCBs, on external outcomes. Another recommendation for future research would be to examine whether instructor-level OCBs influence student-level OCBs at the undergraduate level. For instance, if a professor displays high levels of courtesy, or any other OCB dimension, would students be more inclined to reciprocate these behaviors? Support for this line of research doesn’t necessarily result from the conclusions of this study, but the concepts are related and are important to consider within the context of agricultural education more broadly. For example, Khalid et al. (2010) found that instructor-level OCBs positively influence student performance, while Allison et al. (2001) found that student-level OCBs positively influence student performance in terms of productivity and overall GPA. We wonder, is there an interaction between these two relationships? Is it because instructor displays of OCBs appeal to, and catalyze the reciprocal display of, student OCBs, which in turn contribute to increased performance? The literature appears to be inconclusive so it is important to continue to examine the nature of the phenomenon.

In addition to the above recommendations for research, recommendations are also posited for application. Specifically, a recommendation would be for agricultural leadership and communication educators to consider integrating OCB education curriculum into existing course content. The National Council for Agricultural Education (2015) outlined career ready practices amenable to OCB education as part of their Agriculture, Food, and Natural Resources foundational content standards. Specifically, CRP.09.03 states educators should “demonstrate behaviors that contribute to a positive morale and culture in the workplace and community (e.g., positively influencing others, effectively communicating, etc.” (National Council for Agricultural Education, 2015, p. 22). Sub-sections of this section instruct agricultural educators to identify and summarize respectful and purposeful behaviors, to examine personal levels of these behaviors, and to devise, implement, and evaluate strategies for continuation and improvement of these behaviors (National Council for Agricultural Education, 2015). These standards represent clear opportunities for integration of OCB education into the existing AFNR content. We recommend that teachers capitalize on these opportunities by introducing OCB education to students and discussing the characteristics and implications of OCBs in community and career settings.

Beyond the use of OCBs to connect with learners as an engagement strategy, the literature is clear that OCBs can have a positive effect once an individual enters the workforce (e.g., Alkahtani, 2015; Chen et al., 1998; Podsakoff et al., 1997). Taking the time to inform learners about the fundamental characteristics of OCBs and the relationship with many positive workforce outcomes may help individuals to be aware of how their actions and specifically their embodiment of OCB characteristics may help “to prepar[e] people to work in a global agriculture and natural resource workforce” (Roberts et al., 2016, p. 31). The use of OCBs as a content area within educational settings may help to provide workforce development opportunities. Preparing individuals with not only the technical knowledge required for a career, but also for the skills required for success in the workforce should be a priority of agricultural educators. The current study provides recommendations and proposes OCBs as a potential candidate for success skill education.

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